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  • India is fairly rich in minerals and has sufficiently large reserves of iron ore, coal, manganese, bauxite and Mica. However baring few exceptions, the deposits of non­ferrous metals are limited. More than 90% of the mineral deposits of the country are located in the Chhota Nagpur Region. The valleys of the Damodar in the West Bengal and the Jharkhand, the Mahanadi in Chhattisgarh, and Odisha, and the Godavari in Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh contain practically the entire mineral wealth of the country. Petroleum, copper and gold are the significant mineral deposit outside this area.
  • Two distinct belts of mineral deposits can be identified in India. The first lying in Jharkhand, West Bengal and Odisha, yields most of the iron ore, Coal and limestone and a fairly large proportion of the manganese and bauxite. The second extends across Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh, and contains large deposits of Mica, Coal, iron, limestone, manganese and other minerals.


Minerals are classified into metallic and non-metallic forms. Metallic constitutes extracted iron ore, Copper ore, Bauxite. Non-Metallic includes minerals from which metals are not extracted. Mica and limestone are examples. Minerals of Metallic group are further divided into two groups- The ferrous minerals and the non-ferrous minerals. The ferrous minerals have an affinity with iron while the non-ferrous minerals have no affinity with the iron. Iron, Manganese, nickel is ferrous minerals while Aluminum, Copper, Zinc, Tungsten and lead are non-ferrous minerals. Refractory minerals are the ones which are used as heat resistance in the furnaces etc. Fire clay and Kyanite are the examples of refractory minerals. The minerals which are combustible and are used as fuels are called mineral fuels. Coal, oil and Natural gas are examples of these minerals.

Various minerals occur in India fairly distributed throughout the country and it is depicted as follows.

  • Iron ore — It is one of the basic mineral resources. Iron obtained from this ore is the basis of modern Industrial civilization. The four most important ores of Iron are the Magnetite, Hematite, limonite and siderite. The important mining areas are Singhbhum in Jharkhand and Keonjhar, Talcher and Mayurbhanj in Odisha. Other important producers of iron ore besides Jharkhand and Orissa are MP, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
  • Bauxite — It is the ore of Aluminum. The ore is processed to obtain alumina and alumina is further processed to produce aluminum metal. Major areas of mining of this ore are Ranchi and Palamau in Jharkhand. Balaghat and Jabalpur in MP, Bilaspur in Chhattisgarh, Belgaum and thane in Maharashtra, Odisha, Karanataka, and Tamil Nadu are also important producers of aluminum.
  • Copper — India is rather poor in copper deposits. Important areas are Agnigundala in Andhra Pradesh; Singhubhum, Mosabani and Rakha in Jharkhand; Malanjkhand in MP; Khetri and Dariba in Rajasthan and Chitradurga in Karnataka. Darjeeling and Sikkim also have some copper deposits. Khetri has the largest copper smelting unit.
  • Gold — India is poor in gold reserves also. There are three main areas where gold is mined. Ramgiri gold fields in Anantpur district in Andhra Pradesh, Kolar district of Karnataka and the Hutti mines in Raichur district of Karnataka. Negligible amount of gold is obtained from sands of river Subarnarekha also. Kolar mines are the deepest mines of the world and due to the great depth and declining production the cost of production here are very high.
  • Silver- India has poor deposits of silver. Karnataka, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Tamil Nadu have deposits of silver. Galena and the lead zinc ores of Zawar are the principle sources of silver.
  • Diamonds — Diamond is hardest substance and India is rather poor in diamond deposits. They are found in ancient metamorphic rocks. Panna belt in MP is the most important area in India for diamonds. Other areas are in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
  • Lead and Zinc- These two minerals generally occur together. Zinc ore occurs in Zawar and Banjawi areas of Rajasthan and in Gujarat. Lead ore is found in Agnigundala in Andhra Pradesh and Sargipalle in Orissa also. Tundu smelter in Bihar processes the lead zinc ores from Zawar area.
  • Manganese — India has fairly large reserves of Manganese and the country is one of the leading exporters of Manganese in the world. Orissa, Karnataka, MP, Maharashtra, Goa and Tamil Nadu have the major deposits.
  • Mica — It is a non-metallic mineral and India is the largest producer and exporter of Mica. Better deposits of Mica occur in Hazaribagh district of Jharkhand and Gaya district of Bihar, Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh and in Rajasthan. Kodarma mines in Jharkhand are one of the important producing areas. India has almost a monopoly in Mica exports. However with the development of substitutes of this mineral, production of Mica in India has suffered due to declining demand in the world market.
  • Limestone- An important raw material for cement, iron and steel industry limestone occurs widely in India. MP, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Rajasthan and Karnataka are the important producers. Dehradun region in Uttarakhand also have deposits of good quality limestone.
  • Marble- It is a metamorphic rock used as a building material. Rajasthan is important for marble mining. Makrana is the famous mining center.
  • Granite — Use of granite as a building material has caught up rather recently. Good deposits of granite are found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Gypsum — It is used in cement industry and for reclamation of alkaline soils. Jodhpur and Bikaner districts of Rajasthan have rich deposits of Gypsum. Tamil Nadu, Jammu and Kashmir, UP, HP and Gujarat also have gypsum deposits.
  • Nickel — India is poor in reserves of this mineral. Nickel deposits are found in Cuttack and Mayurbhanj in Orissa.
  • Antimony — It is found in Punjab, Karnataka, Rajasthan and Bihar.
  • Asbestos — It is a fibrous mineral and it is used for making sheets used in building construction. Its deposits are found in Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand.
  • Barytes — Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra have barytes deposits.
  • Dolomite — It is an important raw material for Iron and steel industry. It is used as flux during the process of iron smelting. Dolomite deposits occur mainly in MP, Jharkhand, Orissa, Gujarat, Karnataka, West Bengal, UP, Uttarakhand and Maharashtra.
  • Graphite — Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, MP and Maharashtra have graphite deposits.
  • Sulphur — Sulphur finds application in chemical industry. Deposits of this mineral occur in Tamil Nadu.
  • Tin — India is rather poor in tin also. The chief deposits are found in Bihar and Jharkhand.
  • Thorium — It is a nuclear energy mineral. It is produced from beach sands (monazite sands) found in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. India is among the richest country in deposits of Thorium.
  • Uranium — It is also a nuclear energy mineral. Jaduguda mines in Jharkhand is the important producing area, Uranium deposits occur in MP, Meghalaya, HP and UP also.
  • Beryllium — Its deposits occur in Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Ileminite — like thorium it is also recovered from beach sands. Tamil Nadu and Kerala are the leading producers of this mineral.
  • Magnesite — It is an important refractory mineral and it occurs in Tamil Nadu. Some deposits occur in Almora and Pithorarh in Himalayas also.
  • Salt — Besides its use in food, salt is an important raw material for chemical industry. Most of the salt consumed in the country obtained from the sea. Gujarat is the leading producer of sea salt. Some salt is produced from the salt lakes also. Sambhar and Didwana lakes in Rajasthan are important producers. In addition Salt occurs in rocks also. Rock salt deposits occur in Mandi area of Himachal Pradesh.


Development of industries is of utmost importance to man. Their development is considered to be an index of economic development and strength. Industrial revolution in Europe led to development of modern industries all over the world. First cotton textile mill was set up at Mumbai in 1854. The first jute mill was establishes at Rishra near Kolkata in 1855. The planned development of manufacturing industries in the country began in 1951 and a great variety of products are manufactured in India.


The location of manufacturing industries mainly depends upon physical, economic and human factors.


  • Climate
  • Terrain
  • Availability of water


  • Raw Material
  • Source of water
  • Market
  • Means of transportation
  • Banking facilities


  • Human input
  • Labour forces


Industries cannot be ubiquitously distributed because the factors which attract the industry to be located at a particular place are not the same at the other places. It would be noted that certain industries have concentrated more in certain regions. The regions which have a large concentration of one or different types of industries re termed as Industrial regions.


An Industrial region can be identified as per the following criterion;

  • Percentage of Industrial workers to total working population.
  • Number of industrial workers.
  • Number of factories.
  • Gross industrial output.
  • Amount of energy consumed.


In India there are three types of Industrial regions

  • Major industrial regions.
  • Minor Industrial region.
  • Industrial districts.


Five major industrial regions can be clearly demarcated in India. That are‑

  • The Hooghly Industrial region: This is one of the oldest industrial regions sprawling   along the banks of the river Hooghly. Along the left bank from Naihati to Budge Budge and along the right bank from Tribeni to Nagpur. This region has more than 8000 registered large factories. MINERALS AND INDUSTRIES


  • Jute is grown in its peripheral areas.
  • Kolkata is an old trading centre and capital investment, was done by the British government in its initial years of development.
  • Cheap labours both unskilled and skilled are plentifully available from the contiguous region of Orissa, west Bengal, Jharkhand and Assam.
  • Water transportation with the development of Haldia port.
  • Coal from the nearby mines and hydro-electricity from Damodar valley Corporation project.
  • Developed road and rail transportation with well connected networks.

This region has Jute, silk, cotton textiles, engineering, electrical, chemical, transport equipment, leather, iron and steel and pharmaceutical industries. Titlagarh, Batanagar, Budge budge, Asansol, Kulti, Raniganj and Durgapur are important centers.

  • Mumbai-Pune industrial region – It is the second most important region of the country. The growth of this region is in timely connected with the history of the development of cotton textile industry in India. This region extends from Mumbai proper to Kuria, Thane, Kalyan, Pimpri, Pune and Hadapsar. This belt has a heavy concentration of cotton textile industry, besides engineering, leather, synthetic, plastic, chemical, drugs, electrical, transport and food industries.


  • Availability of Raw cotton from its hinterland.
  • Mumbai is a natural harbour which facilitates trade activities.
  • Development of water power in the Western Ghats.
  • Well connected rail, road, water and air ways with major cities of India and important cities of the world.
  • Plenty of cheap labour both skilled and unskilled from the contiguous areas.
  • The existence of the class of Parsi, Gujarati, Marwari and Khoja Bohras who could provide finance and management experiences for the industry.

Mumbai is well known as cotton-polis of India. MINERALS AND INDUSTRIES

  • The Ahmadabad- Vadodra Industrial region: this is the third largest industrial region of the country comprising Kalol, Ahmedabad, Nadiad, Vadodra, Bharuch, Surat and Ankaleshwar. This region has a very developed petro-chemical textiles, jewellery, pharmaceuticals, drugs, diamond cuttings, leather, plastic, glassware, chemicals and fertilizers industries.


  • Cotton is grown in this region.
  • Availability of plenty of cheap skilled and unskilled labour.
  • Development of petro-chemical industry and discovery of oil in this region.
  • Presence of Kandla port.
  • Efficient rail and road transportation.
  • Availability of cheap land and plenty of cheap skilled and unskilled labour.

On account of heavy concentration of textile manufacturing industries in this region Ahmadabad is known as Manchester of India. This region promises a bright future.

  • The Madurai-Coimbatore-Bangalore region: Spreading over Karnataka and Tamil Nadu this region is known for manufacturing cotton, silk, sugar, refinery, leather goods, automobile and aircraft parts, electronics, telecommunications and engineering goods. MINERALS AND INDUSTRIES


  • Availability of cotton and sugarcane
  • Electricity from Mettur-Sivasamudram, papnasham, Pykara and Shravati Power Project.
  • Cheap local labour.
  • Proximity to the consuming centres.
  • Climatic conditions are more favourable.

This is the only industrial region in south India which has a good prospect ahead.

  • The Chhota Nagpur Industrial region – This region comprises parts of Jharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal. Availability of two prime raw materials- coal and iron ore- has earned this region the name of Ruhr of India. MINERALS AND INDUSTRIES


  • Coal from the Damodar valley, iron ore from the Jharkhand- Orissa mineral belt and bauxite, mica, limestone and copper from the Chhota Nagpur plateau region.
  • Power from the Damodar valley corporation.
  • Cheap labour from the adjoining densely populated regions.
  • Well developed railway and road communication network.
  • Kolkata serves as a largest market for the products of the region.

Among all industrial regions, Chhota Nagpur plateau has recorded maximum growth. It is a centre of metallurgical heavy industry.

  • National Capital Region (NCR): Delhi and adjoining industrial is known as an emerging industrial region. With the availability of electricity from grids, well developed transport communication and infrastructural facilities with one of the largest consumer centre, this region is now developing with the textiles, chemical, cycle, trucks, engineering goods, electronic, sugar, petrochemical, oil refinery, and paper and sports goods industry. The important industrial centres in this region are — Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon, Sonipat, Panipat, Modinagar, Meerut, Yamunanagar etc.

Besides these regions there are 14 minor regions at the Assam valley, Bihar-UP, Indore-Ujjain, Nagpur-Wardha, Dharwad-Belgaon, Godavari-Krishna delta, Kerala coast region.


Though nearly 60% of the population of India is engaged in Agriculture the country has developed a strong industrial base also. Industrial goods are important item of country’s export trade today. The large variety of agriculture and mineral raw material has provided the base for the development of a number of Industries in India. A brief outline of the important industries is provided here.

  • Cotton Textile — This is most important industry in India in terms of employment and production of exports goods. This industry is also one of the most widely distributed industries in India. The industry is generally market oriented. Although Maharashtra and Gujarat are the chief states, other important states are Tamil Nadu, UP, West Bengal, MP, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Jute Goods — India manufactures the largest quantity of jute goods in the world. This industry is located mainly in West Bengal followed by Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, UP and MP. Due to increased competition from the substitutes the demand for jute goods in international market has declined and the industry is facing hard times.
  • Silk Textiles — India produces raw silk of different grades in different parts and industry has developed in all raw silk producing areas. Karnataka leads in silk textiles followed by Assam, west Bengal, Bihar, MP and J & K.
  • Woollen textiles — The distribution of woollen industry has been affected more by the market factor than the raw material factors. The most important producers are Punjab, Maharashtra and UP followed by Gujarat, Karnataka and Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Synthetic fibres- They have become very important industry today. It has developed mainly through the enterprise of the Manufactures of cotton textiles. Imported raw materials dominated the industry during the early years. Today a large part of the demand of the raw materials is met through the indigenous production. Synthetic fibres are today produced by most of, the large textiles manufacturing companies. The industry is highly capital intensive. The leading states in this industry include Maharashtra, Gujarat, UP, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu. India is the major exporter of the Textile made from synthetic fibre.
  • Iron and steel — This industry is basic to industrial development. It is located near the sources of raw material at Jamshedpur, Burnpur, Bhadrawati, Bokaro, Rourkela, Durgapur, Bhilai and Salem and Vishakhapatnam. Except for the Tata iron and steel company (TISCO) plant at Jamshedpur all of them are in public sector. The Bhilai and Bokaro plants are established with Soviet collaboration, the Durgapur plant with British Collaboration, the Rourkela plant with German collaboration and the Vishakhapatnam plant with Russian collaboration. The Vishakhapatnam steel plant is a shore based plant to take advantage of cheap transport.
  • Aluminum – The location of this industry (smelting of aluminum) is closely related to the availability of raw material or means of transport and cheap electricity. Smelting units are in Belgaum, Hirakud, Alwaye, Alupuram, Renukoot, Mettur, Jaykaynagar, Koraput, Korba and Ratnagiri.
  • Copper — The Maubhantar unit of the Indian Copper Corporation limited was the first copper smelting unit in India. The second unit is in Khetri, Rajasthan, one of the largest of its type in Asia. Hindustan copper limited has implemented the Malanjkhand copper project in Balaghat district in Madhya Pradesh and Taloja project at Taloja in Maharashtra.
  • Heavy Machinery — This industry is called heavy Engineering industry also.
    The major plants are located at Ranchi, Vishakhapatnam and Durgapur.
  • Machine tools — The most important company in this field is the Hindustan Machine tools limited. With plants at Bangalore, Pinjore, Kalamassery, Hyderabad and Sri Nagar.
  • Heavy electrical — The Bharat heavy electrical limited (BHEL) is the most important company in this field. This company has plants at Bhopal, Hyderabad, Tiruchirapalli and Hardwar.
  • Railway Equipment — Railway engines are made at Chittranjan (electric), Varanasi diesel, Jamshedpur and Bhopal electric engines. Railway coaches are made at the Integral coach factory at Perambur, Tamil Nadu and at Rail Coach Factory at Kapurthala at Punjab. Railway wheels and axles are manufactured at Yalahanka and Durgapur.
  • Ship Building — The largest ship buildings units in Kochi Shipyard followed by the Hindustan Shipyard at Vishakhapatnam. Mazgaon dock at Mumbai is a strategically important shipyard.
  • Automobiles- Cars are manufactured at Mumbai (Fiat), Kolkata (Ambassador), Pune (Mercedes Benz, Tata motors, Mahindra, GM, Volksvagon), Aurangabad (Skoda, Audi) Gurgaon (Maruti), Chennai (Hyundai, ford, BMW) and Bangalore (Toyota)Alwar (Honda) Sanand (Nano).Trucks at Chennai and Mumbai, tempos and small trucks are manufactured at Mumbai, Pune and Gurgaon. Two wheelers scooters and motorcycles are manufactured at Pune, Mumbai, Faridabad, Chennai, Mysore, Ludhiana and Tripura and three wheelers at Aurangabad and Pune.
  • Bicycles — They are manufactured at a number of places. The chief centers of production are Mumbai, Asansol, Sonepat, Delhi, Chennai, Jalandhar and Ludhiana.
  • Tractors- Tractors are manufactured at Faridabad, Pinjore, Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai.
  • Fertilizers — The fertilizers industry has developed at several centers in the country. The major centers include Sindri, Nangal, Trombay, Gorakhpur, Durgapur, Namrup, Kochi, Rourkela, Neyveli, Varanasi, Vadodara, Vishakhapatnam, Kota and Kanpur. Tamil Nadu, UP, Gujarat, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh leads in the production of fertilizers.
  • Pharmaceuticals — This is one of the oldest industries in India. Anti-biotics are produced at Pimpri and Rishikesh. The Hindustan Antibiotics plant at Rishikesh is one of the largest in the world. Another important company producing the pharmaceuticals is the India drugs and pharmaceuticals ltd (IDPL) with units at Hyderabad, Rishikesh, Gurgaon, Chennai and Muzzafarpur. A number of other units concentrated in Mumbai, Vadodra, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata and Kanpur.
  • Pesticides- The demand for pesticide in the country is increasing as their use is becoming popular with farmers. They are produced in the number of units. Hindustan Insecticides limited is one of the leading companies in this field. The company has its units at Delhi, Udyogmandal and Rasayani. Another Public sector company engaged in this industry is the Hindustan Organic chemical limited (HOCL). The company has its production units at Rasayani and Kochi.
  • Petrochemical Industry — It produces a variety of products such as polymers and elastomers using crude oil, natural gas or naphtha as feed stock. This industry also produces synthetic fibers.The Indian Petrochemical Corporation Ltd (IPCL) and Petrofiles Corporation Limited (PCL) are the two important organizations in this field. Most of the petrochemical complexes have been setup along with the refineries or along the important petroleum pipelines. Mumbai, Barauni, Sahupuram, Patalganga, Mettur, Durgapur, Pimpri, Rishra, Bongaigaon, Chennai, Haldia, Vishakhapatnam and Mathura are the important centers of this industry.
  • Cement — Like iron and steel industry cement industry is also a basic industry. The industry is well distributed in various parts of the country. The leading producers of cement are Tamil Nadu, MP, Gujarat, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand.
  • Leather goods — With a large cattle population, India is one of the leading producers of hides and skins. Leather industry is therefore well developed in many parts of the country. The chief centers of production of leather goods are Agra, Kanpur, Mumbai, Kolkata and Delhi.
  • Glass — Although glass products are made in practically all parts of the country. UP, Maharashtra and West Bengal are the leading producers of glass products.
  • Paper and paper board — This is primarily a forest based industry. However, Agriculture residues are also used as raw materials for this industry today. The first modern paper mill of the country was set up in 1832 at Sehrampore in west Bengal. A raw material based industry most of the paper production units are in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, MP, Karnataka and Bihar.
  • Sugar — Sugar is a very important agro-based industry. The raw material of the industry being perishable, the industry is closely tied to areas of sugarcane cultivation. The leading sugarcane producing states are therefore also the leading sugar producers. They are U, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Bihar. India is one of the leading producers of sugar in the world.
  • Oil refining — Refineries process crude oil to produce various petroleum products such as petrol, diesel, kerosene oil etc. There are presently 18 refineries in India processing domestically produced and imported crude. Besides the 17 major refineries there is a mini refinery at Tatipaka in Andhra Pradesh which is owned by Oil and Natural gas Corporation Limited. A number of refineries have been established in Different parts of India keeping in view the availability of domestic and imported crude supplies and the market requirements of petroleum products. Till a few years back all the refineries capacity of India was in Public sector, however with the opening of oil exploration and production to private sector recently, establishment of refineries has also been allowed in the private sector. Although much of the refinery capacity in India is still under public sector. The role of private sector is likely to expand in the future. Indian oil corporation and its subsidiaries Chennai Petroleum Corporation limited and Bongaigaon refinery and petro­chemical limited manage a total of 10 refineries, Bharat petroleum and its subsidiaries Kochi refineries limited and Numaligarh refineries limited are managing three refineries and Hindustan petroleum Corporation limited has two refineries. Mangalore refinery and Petrochemical limited and reliance petroleum limited have one refinery each. The 17 refineries are located at Digboi, Guwahati, Barauni and Kayali, Haldia, Mathura, Mumbai (2 refineries), Vishakhapatnam, Chennai, Kochi, Bongaigaon, Numaligarh, Panipat, Mangalore, Trombay and Jamnagar. New refinery project under implementation and in planning stage include those at Devgarh in Maharashtra, Bangalore in Karnataka, Paradip in Orissa, Salaya in Gujarat and Bina in MP. MINERALS AND INDUSTRIES



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