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MARXISM :EMERGENCE OF PARALLEL NEW FORCE DURING THE 1920s

MARXISM :EMERGENCE OF PARALLEL NEW FORCE DURING THE 1920s

  • 1920s saw emergence of the most political awareness till date. On one hand the Gandhian satyagraha had given the general public a direction to reflect their discontent.
  • On the other hand, this era presented with different retaliation mechanisms derving their origins from: international developments, recent atrocities (Jallianawala Bagh incident), youth mobilization and coming together of certain castes groups.

Marxism

  • Philosophy of Marx inspired many socialist and communist groups to come into existence and resulted in the rise of a left wing within the Congress, represented by Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Bose.
  • These young nationalists, inspired by the Soviet Revolution and dissatisfied with Gandhian ideas and political programme, began advocating radical solutions for economic, political and social ills of the country.                                    MARXISM :Emergence of Parallel new force during the 1920s

These younger nationalists:

  1. Understood the weakness of both Swarajists and No-changers,
  2. Advocated for puma swarajya (complete independence),
  3. Were influenced by an awareness, though still vague, of international currents,
  4. Stressed the need to combine nationalism and anti- imperialism with social justice and
  5. Raised the question of internal class oppression by capitalists and landlords.
  • Among the communist groups, the Communist Party of India (CPI) was formed in 1920 in Tashkent (now, the capital of Uzbekistan) by M.N. Roy, Abani Mukherji and others after the second Congress of Comintern. M.N. Roy was also the first to be elected to the leadership of Comintern.
  • In 1924, many communists- S.A. Dange, Muzaffar Ahmed, Shaukat Usmani, Nalini Gupta- were jailed in the Kanpur Bolshevik conspiracy case. In 1925, the Indian Communist Conference at Kanpur formalised the foundation of the CPI.
  • In 1929, the Government crackdown on communists resulted in the arrest and trial of 31 leading communists, trade unionists and left-wing leaders who were tried at Meerut in the famous Meerut conspiracy case.                                MARXISM :Emergence of Parallel new force during the 1920s
  • Workers’ and peasants’ parties were organised all over the country and they propagated Marxist and communist ideas.
  • All these communist groups and workers’ and peasants’ parties remained an integral part of the national movement and worked within the Congress.

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Modern History

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