Q1.“If we don’t have a system that gives everyone a chance to gain the necessary skills, differences in education and family background will lead to even greater inequality.” Discuss in the context of fears being expressed about computers replacing humans in workplaces.
The IT services industry alone is set to lose 6.4 lakh low-skilled positions to automation by 2021. Automation threatens 69% of the jobs in India, while it’s 77% in China, according to a World Bank research.
In India fear of automation and computerization becomes still difficult situation owing to fact that we have 22% BPL people and we are experiencing demographic dividend. We are requiring 1.5 crore non agricultural job per year.
Skilling is as low as less than 3% in India and difference between the education and family backgrounds leads to greater inequality if we don’t have a system that gives everyone a chance to gain necessary skills all these inequalities are bound to take horrible form.
Efforts needs to be taken like :-
Implementing the current schemes and policies of government like Skill India, Start Up India and Stand Up India, MUDRA etc
Bridging the divide created on basis of education and family background. Providing English medium education, spreading software skilling since school through computer labs.
Implementing reservation policy with suitable modifications and making it more inclusive to advance the weaker sections of society.
Making the higher educational institutions more relevant to present market and industry needs is important by linking academia, vocational centers and corporates. Currently only 18% engineers are employable.
Tying up with international countries like Singapore to make India skill capital of the world. Opening Global Skill centers in four main cities of states to have regionally balanced skilling.
Roping in NGO and Civil Society like Udyogini, Swayam Shikshan Prayog in order to create chains of rural entrepreneurs.
Q2.What do you understand by moral hazard? It is said that recapitalisation of banks adds to the risk of moral hazard. Elaborate.
Introduction :-In pure economic terms Moral hazard is a situation in which one party gets involved in a risky event knowing that it is protected against the risk and the other party will incur the cost. With recapitalization of banks the debtor enjoys a situation of semi write off of loans which is hazardous to their disciplined behaviour and also to the honest loan payers gets feel that their efforts are in vein. Banks also have hazard. They are now allowed to do bad lending again. It also distort the level playing field between government banks and private sector banks with government helping.
Linkages between recapitalization and risk of moral hazard :-
As was observed in case of IDBI recapitalization by FITCH-Such bailouts create “moral hazard” by weakening incentives for state-run lenders which are struggling to meet bond payments to recapitalise by raising equity on a more timely and pro-active basis.
In the case of public sector banks, the implicit guarantee of their books by the government only worsens this cyclical problem by adding to it the risk of moral hazard.
As nationalised banks are allowed to tap into taxpayer money whenever they are in deep financial trouble, they have very little reason to be careful while lending and more reason to take huge risks with their balance sheets.
The same moral hazard problem happens whenever the government protects private sector banks from the negative consequences of their actions.
As stated by Arvind Subramaniyam “To some extent, moral hazard is unavoidable. In the real world there are no costless actions, policy makers have to balance the perverse incentives created against the necessity of reviving the economy and creating growth and jobs. But moral hazard must be minimized and that is where reforms come in”
Government is supplementing the recapitalization with other steps like Indradhanush scheme, Bank Board Bureau establishment, S4A scheme, restructuring ARCs, consolidating banks like SBI mergers etc.
Q3. One of the tests of integrity is complete refusal to be compromised. Explain with reference to a real life example.
Introduction :- Integrity is the consistency between one’s thoughts, words and actions. It is required in personal life and for a civil servant in order to be aligned to the core principles in life. Being integrated with principles of truth, efficiency, service and putting Organisational, public interests above personal interests is required.
As Alan Simpson had said “If you have integrity nothing else matters and if you don’t have integrity nothing else matters”
Integrity is about complete refusal to be compromised. Even if a small element of compromise is involved the person/ organisation can’t be assumed to be integrated as they compromised on the base of integrity. Conducting integrated behaviour in real sense requires utmost dedication, courage of conviction, desire to do welfare of maximum people and readiness to face hardships for principles.
Gandhiji said “It’s very difficult to have honest behaviour but not impossible to do it.” This can be further illustrated with real life examples.
For a student integrity is complete refusal to cheat in examination while for a Railway TTE it is not taking even 50-100 rs for adjusting passengers.
Civil servants like S R Shankaran showed complete integrity with the public service and refused to compromise it. He remained unmarried for lifetime in order to dedicate his whole time and life for uplifting the weaker sections of society. He works zealously for Schedules Castes people, bonded labourers etc.
Q4. India accounts for the highest TB incidence (23%) and mortality (26%) globally. How can India combat TB effectively? Discuss strategies.
In India, each year, approx. 220, 000 deaths are reported due to Tuberculosis. Between 2006 and 2014, the disease cost Indian economy USD 340 billion. This public health problem is the world’s largest tuberculosis epidemic.
India bears a disproportionately large burden of the world’s tuberculosis rates, as it continues to be the biggest health problem in India. It remains one of the largest on India’s health and wellness scale. India is the highest TB burden country with World Health Organisation (WHO) statistics for 2011 giving an estimated incidence figure of 2.2 million cases of TB for India out of a global incidence of 9.6 million cases.
Strategies to combat TB effectively :-
Focusing on TB prevention strategy like TB vaccination, TB education, TB reporting, Stopping spread of MDR TB and Implementing the WHO Stop TB Strategy in a new form, energy etc.
The Indian government’s Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) started in India during 1997. The program uses the WHO recommended Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) strategy to develop ideas and data on TB treatment. However owing to it’s lacunas the need is to check it’s timely dosages, encourage patients for strict completions of cources and spreading awareness about government programs.
Chemical strategy to combat TB is also effective. Current TB treatments are based on combinations of the drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. The new reaserches like 2-(Quinolin-4-yloxy) acetamide study and ITD-based candidates will be helpful.
Implementing End TB strategy by WHO which focuses on 80% drop in new TB cases by 2030, 90% drop in deaths due to TB by 2030 and 100% of family affected cost saving from TB.
Roping in civil society organisations and NGOs into TB eradication like The Tuberculosis Association of India.
India is moving optimistically on path of TB eradication. There was a 34% increase in case notifications by health-care providers in the private sector between 2013 and 2015. It improved from 61% in 2015 to 69% in 2016. Domestic funding (74%, $387 million) was raised for anti TB work. Governments efforts such as DOTS, X PERT, Revised national TB program, Mission Indradhanush, Nikshay, N-eHA, 90-90-90 atrategy are steps in right direction.