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World history Mains q/a

Age of Enlightenment (1650-1800)

Q1. What were the background issues which provided the basis for enlightenment?

Q2. What were the major changes in Europe brought by age of enlightenment?

Q3. Discuss the role of major thinkers during the age of enlightenment? 

Q4. Write a note on the Montesquieu Theory of “separation of powers”

Q5. What were the implications and contributions of the age of enlightenment?

American war of independence

Q1. Discuss the reasons and the process of colonization of N. America?

Q2. Enumerate the causes of the War of American Independence

Q3. What was the “Boston Tea Party” and why was it significant?

Q4. Describe the events leading to Declaration of Independence in America

Q5. Discuss the major philosophers during the American war of independence. How did their influence coupled with economic factors alter the course of this war?

Q6. Briefly describe the formation and salient features of the American Constitution.

Q7. What is the historical significance of the American Revolution? Also, discuss the consolidation of America after the revolution.

Q8. What were the implications and contributions of the age of enlightenment?

French Revolution

Q1. Discuss the role of French Monarchy which became roots of French Revolution?

Q2. Discuss the class structure in France before French Revolution?

Q3. How did the Intellectual Movement contribute to make French Revolution a success? What were the reasons for the outbreak? 

Q4. How did France’s neighbours respond to the French revolution and the resultant changes in French political system? Describe the conditions leading to rising of Napolean Bonaparte and his military conquests.

Q5. What were the causes for rising of Napoleon and how did he manage to dominate politics of France?

Q6. What were the reasons for the downfall of Napoleon?

Q7. What were the consequences of the French Revolution?

Q8. What was the Impact of French Revolution on the World?

Revolutionary Movements in Europe

Q1. What was “Congress of Vienna”?

Q2. Why was “Congress of Vienna” considered a success?

Q3. After the French Revolutions, how did the existing European Monarchies tried to protect stranglehold on power and what were the consequences?

Q4. Briefly discuss the liberation movement of Spanish American colonies and its consequences.

Q5. Enumerate the events of revolutionary movements in Europe in 1848.

Q6. Trace the path of growth of parliamentary institution in England

Unification of Germany

Q1. Discuss the process of unification of Germany

Unification of Italy

Q1. What were the implications of German and Italian unification?

Industrial Revolution

Q1. Why did Industrial Revolution start in England?

Q2. What role did agriculture play in providing support for Industrial Revolution?

Q3. Explain the technological milestones which helped textile industry during Industrial Revolution

Q4. What was the effect of cheaper British goods on the global economy?

Q5. How did Industrialization affect the society of a country?

Q6. What do you understand by “Industrial Capitalism” and what were its consequences? Also discuss the origin of Labor Laws.

Q7. What do you understand by Laissez-faire? Is it advisable to have Laissez-faire governments?


Q1. What is imperialism?

Q2. What is colonialism?

Q3. What is New Imperialism and summarize the reasons for same? Explore the different phases of Colonization.

Q4. Explore the economic conditions/factors that helped the renewal of Imperialism?

Q5. How did the rise of extreme nationalism contribute to imperialistic expansions?

Q6. Explain how civilization and religion was used as justification for imperialism.

Q7. How did the conditions in Asia and Africa support the imperial powers?

Q8. How did the colonists exploit the Slave trade in different phases of their expansionism?

Q9. Is there an alternative to Imperialistic expansion?


Q1. What was so unique about the First World War?

Q2. “World War I was a result of Imperialist Rivalries” Comment. OR Q3. How far were imperialist rivalries the basic cause of the First World War?

Q4. What were the reasons for political tensions within Europe which ultimately led to World War I? OR. Q5. Explain the basic reasons for the conflicts between European nations from the late nineteenth century to the early years of the twentieth century

Q6. Describe the Incidents Preceding the World War I?

Q7. What were the major reasons for End of the World War I?

Q8. What was the Role of technology in World War 1? Or Discuss the role of Technology during the First World War

Q9. Briefly describe how World War I changed the political geography of World? Also, discuss Immediate Consequences of the War and the Peace Treaties and Midterm Impact of World War I

Q10. Describe the participation of India in WWI and What was the Impact of World War I on India?

Fascism and rise of Hitler

Q1. What do you understand by Fascism?

Q2. Provide the description of rising and effect of Fascist movement in Italy.

Q3. Enumerate the conditions conducive to rising of Nazism in Germany. Discuss the rise of Nazism and Hitler.

Q4. What economic conditions led to the collapse of German economy?

Q5. How did Hitler exploit the weakness on German economy to his benefit?

Q6. Comment on the status of modern extreme right-wing parties (Neo-Fascism) OR Democracy prevents Fascism, Comment.

Russian Revolution

Q1. Describe the Socio-Economic Conditions in Russia before the revolution.

Q2. Describe the political environment in Russia before the Revolution?

Q3. The Russian revolution was a struggle in which different classes participated. Comment.

Q4. Describe the 1905 Revolution in Russia and its implication in Russian struggle.

Q5. Imperialistic ambitions of Russian Czar and his insensitivity caused “February revolution”. Comment

Q6. What were the steps taken by Soviets to “Socialize” the Russian society?

Q7. How did the opposition to Russian Revolution manifest itself?

Q8. What were the consequences of the Revolution?

Q9. What were the impacts of Russian Revolution on India?


Q1. Trace the growth of ideas and conditions which gave birth to Socialism.

Q2. Explore the growth of Communist Movement.

Q3. What was “The First International”?

Q4. What was “The Paris Commune of 1871”?

Q5. What were the consequences of Paris Commune on First International?

Q6. What were the achievements of 2nd international?

Q7. Explore the differences of Second Congress which led to its disintegration?

Q8. How did the Russian Revolution give birth to Comintern and what were its consequences?

Q9. Success of the Soviet Union and its achievements influenced political systems, colonialism, and relations with other countries throughout the world. Comment.


Q1. “League of nations changed the method of international diplomacy”. Explore the statement in light of background issues which gave the birth to the League.

Q2. Explore the flaws in ‘birth’ of League of Nations which led to its weakness

Q3. Explore the history of different periods in the history of League of Nations.

Q4. Discuss the achievements of the League of Nations

Q5. Briefly list the causes of failure of League of Nations

Q6. Explore the Causes of failure of League of Nations

Q7. How failure of the League of Nations contributed as a major factor in the World War II?

The Great Depression

Q1. Explain the economic conditions which caused the great depression.

Q2. How did the crash in US stock markets trigger the “Great Depression”? Explore its effects.

Q3. What were the major effects of Great Depression?

Q4. In what ways did the Great Depression affect India?

Q5. Why was the initial response of governments to Great Depression not effective?

Q6. Great Depression changed the role of governments. Comment. How did the Great Depression lead to abandoning Laissez Faire Governance?

Q7. What was the “New Deal” for America and What was Roosevelt trying to achieve?

Q8. What were the ‘Alphabet’ agencies, FERA, AAA, NRA, PWA, CCC, TVA.

Q9. Did the New Deal work for America? Analyze

Q10. What was the New Economic Policy of USSR and why was it implemented?

Q11. NEP of USSR was only a temporary solution in USSR. Comment


Q1. What factors influenced and encouraged the rise of Arabs and Islamic Empire?

Q2. Why the period 750-1000 A.D. known as the golden age of Islam?

Q3. Describe the Caliphate system and its role in the expansion of Muslim Kingdom?

Q4. Discuss the nature of division in Islam? What were the reasons for the decline of Ottoman Empire?

Q5. What was the ‘Millet System’ established by the Ottoman Turks?

Q6. How did the European concept of Nationalism contribute to the breakup of Ottoman Empire? Trace the historical stages in the breakup of Ottoman Empire and the birth of ‘Nationalities’ based countries in the Middle East

Q7. Explore the European transgressions in the Middle East and its consequences?

World War II

Q1. What were the main factors which led to World War II?

Q2. What was the Phoney War?

Q3. The German blitzkrieg made Germany the supreme power for a period. Comment

Q4. Explain how the German Invasion of Soviet Union halted its capture of Europe

Q5. How was the USA forced into the Second World War?

Q6. What is the significance of “Battle of Stalingrad”?

Q7. The ‘Second Front’ heralded the end of War. Comment

Q8. Explain how the Nuclear Attack on Japan, put out the Axis will to fight

Q9. Explain the role of Resistance Movements which resisted the occupying forces of Fascist Nations

Q10. Write a note on damage caused by World War II

Q11. Atom Bomb exponentially increased the destruction in World War II and was used to established American superiority. Analyze

Q12. What were the consequences of Second World War?


Q1. Why did the pursuit of colonies slow down during the initial period of Industrial Revolution?

Q2. Describe how the European powers destroyed the Chinese imperials regime?

Q3. Japan itself became an Imperialist country after the Meiji Restoration. Comment

Q4. Why was Japan able to transform so efficiently to modernity?

Q5. Briefly look over the colonization of South and South East

Q6. Write a short note on effects of colonization?

Q7. Explain the role of United Nations in Decolonization.


Q1. What was Cold War?

Q2. Discuss the main causes of the Cold War in 1945

Q3. Briefly explore the gravity of destruction after World War II and conditions which led to Cold War?

Q4. Explain the Soviet expansion and in Eastern Europe

Q5. Explore United State’s sudden rise in geopolitics after the World War

Q6. Discuss the strategies used by the two Superpowers in the Cold War. 

Q7. How did the conditions of the division of Germany after the World War II lead to the Cold War?

Q8. Trace the formation of various Military Alliances and its impact?

Q9. How did the Cold War affect East Asia?

Q10. Discuss the role of technology in Cold War?

Q11. Explain the significance of The Berlin Wall in Cold War.

Q12. Trace the development of Cuban Missile Crisis and how it resulted in strategic changes in Cold War?

Q13. Vietnam’s struggle for independence was a Water Loo for American’s. Elaborate.

Q14. Discuss the nuclear arms race unleashed by Cold War.

Q15. Discuss the stages of defusing nuclear time-bomb.

Q16. What were the fallouts of the Cold War?


Q1. Enumerate the reasons for the birth of Non-Aligned Movement

Q2. Describe the dynamism of Non-Alignment?

Q3. Non-alignment is not Neutrality. Analyze

Q4. What are the salient features of Non-aligned movement?/ What non-alignment stands for

Q5. Discuss India’s Role in NAM.

Q6. Brief notes on the Crises in Non-aligned Movement.

Q7. NAM (Non-aligned Movement) is relevant in Unipolar World as well



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