Q1. What is surface ozone (O3)? Why is it considered as a neglected and dangerous pollutant? Examine.
In India pollution diacussion is mainly concentrated with particulate matter but ground level ozone/surface ozone is equally hazardous .A recent study shows that the O3 levels will continue to rise drastically particularly in North India.
Ground level or “bad” ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight.
Emissions from industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents are some of the major sources of NOx and VOC.
Why is it a Dangerous pollutant :-
Breathing ozone can trigger a variety of health problems, particularly for children, the elderly, and people of all ages who have lung diseases such as asthma.
Groundlevel ozone can also have harmful effects on sensitive vegetation especially during the growing season and ecosystems including forests, parks, wildlife refuges and wilderness areas
It is the main ingredient in “smog.
According to data by 2050’s ozone levels will increase by up to 4.4% in many places in north India particularly Uttar Pradesh.
Due to this there will be a decrease over forest patches of the western ghats in the south of 3.4%
Climate change will adversely impact soil,moisture ,rains ,vegetation density etc which will further impact the absorption of ozone .
Man made sources like vehicles,power plants or machines which uses fossil fuels where the O3 component will increase by up to 45% in parts of North India.
Way forward :-
A policy is necessary to successfully reduce the effect of this pollutant.
Q2. Why do you think good temperament and strong emotional intelligence are desired traits that one wants to witness in today’s global leaders? Comment.
In the current world there are challenges with respect to climate change,water crisis ,growing violence ,terrorist activities so a leader with good temperament is very necessary
Reasons why these are important are :-
Traits like personality, how well leaders can communicate, and their ability to empathize, negotiate, and leadare necessary qualities for a great leader. For instance Jack Ma ‘s inspirational leadership
Emotionally intelligent people tend to be more authentic and transparent .At the same time, they’re also able to keep their feelings in check and make well-informed decisions, are incredibly resilient under pressure and display higher rates of empathy .
In a study of more than 5000 leaders across multiple industries ,researchers discovered that the best leaders were decisive and willing to take risks, but also more self-aware and more thoughtful about how they engaged with family and coworkers.
They comprehend the needs and motivations of others, and in turn, calmly engage with them under pressure in order to move decisions forward.
According to Harvard study the most successful leaders are:
Able to empathize and manage the emotions of other people
Self-aware but not egocentric
Able to keep their own emotions in check, while quickly thinking and problem-solving around how their ideas will impact others
In the present world emotionally intelligent leaders are necessary to avoid conflicts like north Korea Vs US,understand environmental ethics,maintain peace ,defend minority rights etc.
Lack of such attributes especially in global leaders leads to intolerance,sectarian violence ,religious persecutions,refugee crisis etc..
Q3. What is ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF)? Discuss its benefits and government of India’s policy on RUTF.
Introduction :- Therapeutic foods are foods designed for specific, usually nutritional, therapeutic purposes as a form of dietary supplement. The primary examples of therapeutic foods are used for emergency feeding of malnourished children or to supplement the diets of persons with special nutrition requirements, such as the elderly.
Therapeutic foods are usually made of a mixture of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and vitamins and minerals. Therapeutic foods are usually produced by grinding all ingredients together and mixing them. RUTFs are a “homogeneous mixture of lipid-rich and water-soluble foods.” The most common RUTFs are made of four ingredients: sugar, dried skimmed milk, oil, and vitamin and mineral supplement (CMV).
Benefits of RUTF :-
Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is recommended by the World Health Organization for community-based management of uncomplicated forms of severe acute malnutrition.
It’s effectiveness in tacking acute malnutrition is seen in 2013 Plumpy’nuthad been used to relieve malnutrition in thousands of African children. A small scale study in Mumbai’s Sion Hospital put RUTF’s efficacy at 65-70 per cent.
The Global Hunger Index report 2017 put India at number 100 in a list of 119 countries, and the National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16) found 35.7% children aged less than five years were underweight, and 38.4% were stunted. Hence solutions like this need to be implemented.
It provides solution at instant and hence curb long term weakness or death in children.
Its also effective for elderly people as they become incapable to digest regular food. India’s old age population is estimated to be 20% by 2050.
Though it have many benefits it’s not a cost effective and sustainable solution to address nutritional imbalances as seen from experiences of Maharashtra and Rajasthan states. Government Of India has declared it’s stand as “Enough evidence is not available for use of RUTF vis-à-vis other interventions for the management of SAM. Concerns have also been raised that the use of RUTF may replace nutritional best practices and family foods that children would normally be eating, impacting negatively on continued breastfeeding in children older than six months”
Hence other steps like policy to encourage use of local solutions to malnutrition among children instead of promoting the use of packaged ready-to-use food in government programmes and projects. Policies and schemes like Mother’s absolute affection (MAA) Maternity benefit act, SABALA,
There is a need to rope in The Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN), SUN Business Network, which includes other players such as Pepsi, Cargill, Nutriset, Britannia, Unilever, Edesia, General Mills, Glaxo SKB, Mars, Indofood, Nutrifood, DSM, Amul, and Valid Nutrition under Corporate Social responsibilities norms to use their resources effectively.
Q4. Opacity in political financing, fear of party fragmentation, dynastic succession, and lack of intra-party democracy are all mutually reinforcing variables. Analyse. (250 Words)
Opacity in political funding :-
In June, 2013, the Central Information Commission held that political parties are under the Right to Information Act. But this was subsequently rejected. Non transparent display by parties has led to menace of corruption, growth of black money
Fear of party fragmentation :-
Owing to this many parties centralize the power and again become functionally less efficient and less dynamic, less democratic. Even if a leader disillusioned with the centralized control in her party goes on to establish a new party, the results are not very different.
Dynastic succession :-
The logic of dynastic politics is the logic of patronage. The dynast trades economic largesse and access to the machinery of the state for long-term fealty. Economist Mancur Olson has described it as stationary bandits versus roving bandits. While the stationary bandits means dynast has advantages of already establishes set up the roving bandits means non dynast face mismatch between efforts and pay off hence it discourages their faith in fairness in democracy.
Philippines is a classical example where dynastic politics created problems in national developments. Since the restoration of democracy in 1987, more than 60% of the country’s House of Representatives has been made up of dynastic clans.
In Indian case a recent Harvard paper, Understanding The Economic Impacts Of Political Dynasties: Evidence From India, by Siddharth George and Dominic Ponattu, analysed night-time luminosity as a measure of economic growth to find that constituencies where dynasts won grew 6.5 percentage points slower annually than constituencies where dynasts lost.
Intra party democracy :
Quality of a democracy ultimately depends on internal democracy (or the lack of it) in political parties. In its 170th report in 1999, the Law Commission of India underscored the importance of intra-party democracy by arguing that a political party cannot be a “dictatorship internally and democratic in its functioning outside”.
Politics is inseparable from political parties as they are the prime instruments for the execution of democracy in the country. The selection of candidates, the mobilisation of the electorate, the formulation of agendas and the passing of legislation are all conducted through political parties. Hence there is a inherent need to make it more democratic.
Hence it’s important that efforts and reforms should be initiated from within the party in order to make then suitable, relevant and more effective in present time.