Q1. What were the implications of German and Italian unifications?
In spite of the important role played by democratic and revolutionary leaders such as Mazzini and Garibaldi in the struggle for Italy’s liberation and unification, Italy also, like Germany, became a monarchy. The unification of Germany and Italy, in spite of the fact that democracy was not completely victorious there, marked a great advance in the history of the two countries.
These revolutions and movements, along with the Industrial Revolution, deeply influenced the course of the history of mankind. The forces that generated these revolutions and movements were also at work in other countries. Their success in one place fed the fires of revolt and encouraged change in the rest of the world transforming social, political and economic life everywhere.
Another important aspect of these movements was the gradual growth of political democracy, that is, the ever increasing participation of increasing number of people in the political life of a country.
This happened in countries where the form of government became republican as well as in those which remained monarchies such as England, Germany and Italy. The period of autocracies and privileged aristocracies was gradually coming to an end and leading to national unity and national independence.
The new political and economic system that was emerging in Europe in the 19th century was also creating imperialism. The period of the triumph of democracy and in Europe was also the period of the conquest of Asia and Africa by the imperialist powers of Europe. The 19th century saw the beginning of the revolts against imperialism in Asia and Africa.
Q2.What is the difference between Resolution and Motion?
Resolution – is a self-contained independent proposal submitted for the approval of the House and drafted in such away as to be capable of expressing a decision of the House. A resolution may be in the form
of declaration of opinion; or
of a recommendation; or
so as to record either approval or disapproval by the House of an act or policy of Government; or
convey a message; or
commend, urge or request an action; or
call attention to a matter or situation for consideration by government; or
in such other form as the Speaker may consider appropriate.
Example of a resolution – In case of a natural disaster like the floods that occurred in Jammu & Kashmir, the house can pass a resolution recommending the immediate measures to be taken by the Government for relief and rehabilitation of the victims.
Motion— It is a formal proposal made to the House by a member requesting the House to do something, order something to be done or express an opinion with regard to some matter. Any matter to be decided by the House must be brought in front of the House in the form of a motion and once the motion is adopted by the House, it becomes the decision or opinion of the House as a whole. Motions therefore are the basis of parliamentary proceedings. A motion can be moved only with the approval of the presiding officer – Speaker in Lok Sabha, Chairman in Rajya Sabha. A motion goes through the following four stages:
Moving of the motion– the member proposing the motion will introduce the motion.
Proposing the question by the Speaker/Chairman – the Speaker/Chairman allow the motion by admiting it.
Debate or discussion where permissible – discussions or debates on the matter in the motion are not allowed in all cases; only in a few types of motions debates or discussion are allowed.
Voting or decision of the house – the matter in the motion is voted on.
All motions moved in the House are classified into three broad categories namely:
Substantive motion—It is a self-contained independent proposal submitted for the approval of the House and drafted in such a way as to be capable of expressing a decision of the House. It is self-contained independent proposal because it neither depends nor arises out of any other motion. Examples of Substantive motions are:
Motion of thanks on the President’s address.
Motion for adjournment on a matter of public importance.
No confidence motion.
Motion for election or removal of Speaker/ Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha and Chairman/Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha.
Motion for impeachment of President and removal of judges of High Court and Supreme Court.
Substitute motion — are motions moved in substitution of the original motion and proposing an alternative to it. This motion can be moved by another member before the commencement of discussion on the original motion. While the subject of both the motions is same, they differ on the matter of decision.
Subsidiary motion— It is a motion which depends upon or relates to another motion or follows upon some proceedings in the House. By itself it has no meaning and is not capable of stating the decision of the House without reference to the original motion or proceedings of the House. Subsidiary Motions are further divided into:
(a) Ancillary motion—A motion which is recognised by the practice of the House as the regular way of proceeding with various kinds of business. Examples of ancillary motions – that the Bill be taken into consideration; that the Bill be passed.
(b) Superseding motion—A motion which though independent in form, is moved in the course of debate on another question and seeks to supersede that question. In that class fall all the dilatory motions as they cause a delay in deciding on the motions. The following motions are superseding motions in relation to the motion for taking into consideration a Bill—
That the Bill be re-committed to a select committee.
That the Bill be re-committed to a joint committee of the Houses.
That the Bill be re-circulated for eliciting further opinion thereon.
(c) Amendment — is a subsidiary motion that seeks to modify a part of the orginal motion.
Difference between a motion and resolution:
The difference between a motion and resolution is more of procedure than content, i.e., the content of a resolution and a motion can be the same but the manner in which it is adopted and the decision on the content will differ.
All resolutions come under the category of substantive motions but all motions are not resolutions.
Q3. What are the Objectives of Model Bill for Conservation, Protection and Regulation of Groundwater and what are the challenges in the way of its implementation?
Model Bill for Conservation, Protection and Regulation of Groundwater seeks to make groundwater a common pool resource, reduce its pollution and degradation, and protect ecosystems and their biological diversity.
This is a very important bill and needs the attention of every citizen of India, especially the 33 million or more borewell users extracting around 250 cubic km. of water from the ground.
The bill seeks to move groundwater away from its current avatar under the Easements Act as a private property resource to a Common Pool Resource.
The State will hold groundwater as a resource in public trust.
Empowering ground level institutions:
In the true spirit of decentralisationand the principle of subsidiarity, it seeks to empower Gram Panchayats and Nagarpalikas through a process of Gram Sabhas and Ward Sabhas to develop management plans for groundwater use in public domain and through people’s participation and approval.
Objectives of the Act include:
Ensure the realisation of the fundamental right to life through the provision of water.
Meet food security, livelihoods, basic human needs, livestock and aquatic life.
Protect ecosystems and their biological diversity.
Reduce and prevent pollution and degradation of groundwater.
Various provisions of the Bill and related Challenges:
One of the biggest challenges for sustainable management of groundwater comes from overexploitation and overuse, beyond the annual recharge.
The other comes from pollution, from natural mineral occurrences such as with fluoride and arsenic and with man-made sources such as industrial effluents, fertilizers and sewage.
To combat this, the Act proposes the demarcation of ‘groundwater protection zones’ based on the latest dynamic resource assessment of the Central Groundwater Board and State agencies and the mapping of aquifers and sub-aquifers, a process which is ongoing.
This then will lead to the development of a groundwater security plan which through a process of recharge and demand management will result in attainment of sufficient quantity of safe water for life and sustainable livelihood and ensuring water security even in times of drought and floods.
For the institutional framework, the Act sees the setting up of a groundwater sub-committee under the village water and sanitation committee by the Gram Panchayat.
This will be supervised by a Block Panchayat, which will consolidate the groundwater security plans of all Gram Panchayats in its ambit.
In urban areas, the Model Bill envisages the setting up of ward groundwater committees which will plan, approve and facilitate the implementation of Ward Groundwater Security Plan.
This will be overseen by a Municipal Water Management Committee.
On top of these layers will be a District Groundwater Council and State Groundwater Advisory Council to appropriately integrate and take decisions at their scale.
The Model Bill seeks to place certain responsibilities on the groundwater user: for example, its efficient use, its prevention from pollution, replenishing and recharging groundwater.
For industrial users there are several checks and includes the recommendation to charge for groundwater use, the monies so begot being invested for the sustainability of the resource.
While the bill has been drafted with care and is comprehensive, yet it is at a draft stage and will need several inputs, especially from industrial users of groundwater and those in the peri-urban areas.
It is unlikely that the bill will work in urban areas, being extremely idealistic in its assumption of the existence and capabilities of local governments. This holds true for gram panchayats too.
Eventually the bill will need to be adopted by States and will be modified based on their local conditions, institutional, legal and governance related as well as aquifer related differences.
Q4. What is Empathy? How can empathy be developed in the Civil Servants?
The oxford dictionary defines Empathy as: The ability to understand and share the feelings of another.Empathy is sensing what others feel about, without the need of an open talk.
Empathy begins with showing concern, and then obtaining and understanding the feelings of others, from others’ point of view.
It is also defined as the ability to put one’s self into the psychological frame of reference or point of view of another, to know what the other person feels.
It includes the imaginative projection into other’s feelings and understanding of other’s background such as parentage, physical and mental state, economic situation, and association.
This is an essential ingredient for good human relations and transactions.
To practice ‘Empathy’, a Civil Servant or a good leader must have to develop in him, the following characteristics:
Understanding others: It means sensing others feelings and perspectives, and taking active interest in their welfare.
Service orientation: It is anticipation, recognition and meeting the needs of the clients or citizens.
Developing others: This means identification of their needs and bolstering their abilities. In developing others, the one should inculcate in him the ‘listening skill’ first.
Leveraging diversity(opportunities through diverse people): This leads to enhanced organizational learning, flexibility, and profitability.
Socio-Political awareness: It is the ability to read political and social currents in an organization.
The benefits of empathy include:
Good government-citizen relations:This helps in reducing the trust deficit between the government and the citizens.
Harmonious relations between government employees:The employees feel themselves to be an integrated part of the organisation. With an empathetic leader, the performance of the employees increases and they contribute maximum to the processes.
Maximum efficiency in governance:With greater harmony and improved communication between the participants of the organisation, the level of efficiency and productivity of the employees touches its peaks.