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Mains q/a 25-04-2018

Q1. What are seven sins according to Mahatma Gandhi?

Gandhi listed SEVEN SINS which every human should abstain from. These are,

1) Wealth without Work : It depicts making wealth by UNFAIR means, by taking short cuts. “Black Money” is a case in point.

2) Pleasure without Conscience : Happiness that is earned at the expense of others is no less than a sin. A person’s SELFISHNESS forces him to neglect the interests of others.

3) Knowledge without character : Bruce Lee said, “Knowledge will give you power. Character gives you respect.” Character imbibes qualities of INTEGRITY and HONESTY in a knowledgeable person. This sin can make a person like Osama Bin Laden and knowledge with character can make him like Dr. Kalam.

4) Business without morality : This sin can make many suffer. Poor working conditions, adulteration, lack of security are examples of this sin.

5) Science without humanity : Pakistan has nukes but the socio-economic conditions of the nation are worsening with time.

6) Religion without sacrifice : Religion today has been reduced to mere practices and rituals. Not bringing the religious teachings of COMPASSION, AFFECTION and BROTHERHOOD in our lives is a sin.

7) Politics without principle : The advent of money and muscle power, lack of conviction and principles in politics is a sin.

The idea of “welfare state” can come true when Gandhi’s vision be incorporated in all spheres of life.

 

Q2. What is emotional intelligence?

For most people, emotional intelligence (EQ) is more important than one’s intelligence (IQ) in attaining success in their lives and careers. As individuals our success and the success of the profession today depend on our ability to read other people’s signals and react appropriately to them.

Therefore, each one of us must develop the mature emotional intelligence skills required to better understand, empathize and negotiate with other people — particularly as the economy has become more global. Otherwise, success will elude us in our lives and careers.

“Your EQ is the level of your ability to understand other people, what motivates them and how to work cooperatively with them,” says Howard Gardner, the influential Harvard theorist. Five major categories of emotional intelligence skills are recognized by researchers in this area.

Understanding the Five Categories of Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

  1. Self-awareness.The ability to recognize an emotion as it “happens” is the key to your EQ. Developing self-awareness requires tuning in to your true feelings. If you evaluate your emotions, you can manage them. The major elements of self-awareness are:
  • Emotional awareness. Your ability to recognize your own emotions and their effects.
  • Self-confidence. Sureness about your self-worth and capabilities.
  1. Self-regulation. You often have little control over when you experience emotions. You can, however, have some say in how long an emotion will last by using a number of techniques to alleviate negative emotions such as anger, anxietyor depression. A few of these techniques include recasting a situation in a more positive light, taking a long walk and meditation or prayer. Self-regulation involves
  • Self-control. Managing disruptive impulses.
  • Trustworthiness. Maintaining standards of honesty and integrity.
  • Conscientiousness. Taking responsibility for your own performance.
  • Adaptability. Handling change with flexibility.
  • Innovation. Being open to new ideas.
  1. Motivation.To motivate yourself for any achievement requires clear goals and a positive attitude. Although you may have a predisposition to either a positive or a negative attitude, you can with effort and practice learn to think more positively. If you catch negative thoughts as they occur, you can reframe them in more positive terms — which will help you achieve your goals. Motivation is made up of:
  • Achievement drive. Your constant striving to improve or to meet a standard of excellence.
  • Commitment. Aligning with the goals of the group or organization.
  • Initiative. Readying yourself to act on opportunities.
  • Optimism. Pursuing goals persistently despite obstacles and setbacks.
  1. Empathy.The ability to recognize how people feel is important to success in your life and career. The more skillful you are at discerning the feelings behind others’ signals the better you can control the signals you send them. An empathetic person excels at:
  • Service orientation. Anticipating, recognizing and meeting clients’ needs.
  • Developing others. Sensing what others need to progress and bolstering their abilities.
  • Leveraging diversity. Cultivating opportunities through diverse people.
  • Political awareness. Reading a group’s emotional currents and power relationships.
  • Understanding others. Discerning the feelings behind the needs and wants of others.
  1. Social skills.The development of good interpersonal skills is tantamount to success in your life and career. In today’s always-connected world, everyone has immediate access to technical knowledge. Thus, “people skills” are even more important now because you must possess a high EQ to better understand, empathize and negotiate with others in a global economy. Among the most useful skills are:
  • Influence. Wielding effective persuasion tactics.
  • Communication. Sending clear messages.
  • Leadership. Inspiring and guiding groups and people.
  • Change catalyst. Initiating or managing change.
  • Conflict management. Understanding, negotiating and resolving disagreements.
  • Building bonds. Nurturing instrumental relationships.
  • Collaboration and cooperation. Working with others toward shared goals.
  • Team capabilities. Creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals.

 

Q3. What is the Role And Functions Of Comptroller And Auditor General Of India (CAG)

Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) is the guardian or care-taker of the national purse. He is appointed by the President of India for a tenure of 6 years.

The role, function and duties of the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) are elaborated by an act of the Parliament passed in 1971.

Articles 148 to 151 of the Indian constitution creates and regulates the office of Comptroller and Auditor General of India. Dr. D.D. Basu considers the office of the Comptroller and Auditor General as “pivotal” to the control of entire financial system of the country. Dr. Ambedkar felt that the Comptroller and Auditor General of India shall be the most important officer under the constitution of India.

The constitution has instituted the British system of responsible government in India. The substance of responsibility is that the executive i.e. the Prime Minister and the Cabinet remains answerable for all their activities to the popularly elected chamber of the legislature.

The responsibility becomes empty unless financial activities of the government are subject to parliamentary scrutiny. For this it is imperative that there should be an independent authority to examine and scrutinize the financial transactions of the government. With this object in view, the Government of India Act of 1935, made the Auditor General of India irremovable except “in like manner and on like grounds as a judge of the Federal Court.” The office of the Comptroller and Auditor General is an adaptation of the office of the Auditor General under the Act of 1935.

The constitution makes the Comptroller and Auditor General the guardian of the public purse. His primary duty is to see that neither the union government nor the government of any state spends any money from the consolidated fund without legislative appropriation. Since he is the impartial head of the audit and accounts system of India, it is essential that he should be independent of executive control.

To secure this independence, it has been provided that though appointed by the President; he does not hold office during the pleasure of the President like other officers of the union government. He may be removed from office through a process of impeachment. His salary and allowances cannot be varied to his disadvantage during his tenure of service.

He is appointed for a term of six years. His salary is equal to that of a Supreme Court Judge. He enjoys the rank of a secretary to the government of India. The salary and allowances of the Comptroller and Auditor General together with those of his staff are charged on the revenue of India and are non-votable in the Parliament.

The role and duties of the Comptroller and Auditor General are elaborated by an act of the Parliament passed in 1971. An amendment of this act in 1976 has relieved him from preparing the accounts of the government.

The Comptroller and Auditor General audit the account of the union government and report to the President. The annual report relating to the accounts of the Central Government is submitted to the President. The President lay the report before both the Houses of the Parliament for consideration.

It is the duty of the CAG to ensure that proper approval of the Parliament has been taken prior to spending the public money from the Consolidated Fund of India. He reports on all expenditures from the Consolidated Fund as well as from the Contingency Fund.

He also audits and reports on the trade and manufacture by government departments. Accounts of Public Corporations are also audited by him.

The functioning of the Comptroller and Auditor General in India is exposed to several criticisms. In India the emphasis is almost exclusively on audit rather than on control of expenditures. In England, the government departments require authorization from the Comptroller. Thus whenever money is withdrawn for expenditure, the Comptroller is satisfied that there is legal authority for the expenditure. In India, the Comptroller and Auditor General comes into the picture only at the audit stage i.e. after the expenditures have already been made. Some critics also question the wisdom of commenting on extravagance of the government by the Comptroller and Auditor General.

 

Q4. What is Atal New India Challenge:

It shall be run in collaboration with various ministries- Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation and Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation.

Under the Atal New India Challenge, AIM will invite prospective innovators/MSMEs/start-ups to design market-ready products, using cutting edge technologies or prototypes across 17 identified focus areas such as Climate Smart Agriculture, Smart Mobility, Predictive Maintenance of Rolling Stock, Waste Management etc.

Applicants showing capability, intent and potential to productize technologies will be awarded grants up to Rs. One crore. This grant will be further supplemented by mentoring, handholding, incubating and other support as needed at various stages of commercialisation, while generating wider deployment for the product.

  • The Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) is Government of India’s flagship initiative to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship in the country.
  • AIM is mandated to create an umbrella structure to oversee innovation ecosystem of the country and revolutionizing the innovation eco-system – touching upon the entire innovation life cycle through various programs.
  • Atal Tinkering Laboratories (ATLs) create innovators, Atal Incubation Centre and support to Established Incubation Centre will take the innovations to the market and a network of Incubators shall help create enterprises around these innovations.

 

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