Q1.Swami Vivekananda’s thoughts on ethics are essentially practical and based on normative ethics. Discuss.(250 words)
Ethics, according to Vivekananda, is nothing but a code of conduct that
helps a man to be a good citizen of the world. The world needs good citizens for the betterment of the people. Without good citizens, no system, social or practical can functions in right ways. The basis of all systems social or political rests upon the goodness of men.
Ethics is also a mean to reach the goal, but it lies beyond laws. The strength of morality is greater than those facts.
His ethics is practical and normative:-
It is practical as it throws lights on the practical life of a man. It addresses both the aspects of ethics containing two vital parts how and why a man will lead an ethical life.
It is not Meta ethics as it does not deals only with the theoretical meaning and reference of moral proposition and how their truth values may be determined.
Normative ethics deals with the practical means of determining a moral course of action. Swami Vivekananda clearly makes distinction between two concepts of moral and immoral. He says, that which is selfish is immoral, and that which is unselfish is moral.
A man who wants to behave in accordance with the code of ethics must put himself last, i.e. he must show his attention for the interest of others first.
The background of ethics of Swami Vivekananda is The infinite oneness of the soul is the eternal sanction of all morality.
From this thinking of Swami Vivekananda it is clear that the boundary of morality is extended to non-human beings also to treat them as ethical beings.
To him, doing good is a secondary consideration. We must have an ideal. Ethics itself is not the end, but the means to the end
Therefore the concept of ethics of Swami Vivekananda may be designated as holistic ethics, as it tends to address the whole world. It is the duty of human beings not to show ethical behavior only to other fellow beings, but also to the whole universe. The whole universe is the subject matter of Vivekananda‘s ethics.
Q2. Compare and contrast Gandhi and Bose’s view on the future of the nation in general and national movement in particular?(250 words)
Both Mahatma Gandhi and Subhash Chandra Bose were stalwarts of Indian freedom struggle. Gandhi and Subhash Chandra Bose differed in their approach and had different understanding of political reality:
Similarities between Gandhi and Bose view :-
Gandhi and Bose did not differ on their choices between communism and capitalism. Both were socialists, as per their stated positions, and disassociated themselves from Communism (Bose certainly did).
Again, unlike what is commonly believed, Gandhi was not opposed to violence per se as he did not totally oppose violence during Quit India movement.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Subhash Chandra Bose had the same objective of liberating the country from the yoke of British imperialism.
Until the political clash at Tripuri they worked more or less together under the common platform of the Indian National Congress for about two decades.
Gandhiji’s struggle i.e., averse mindset in the beginning of the Second World War and his uncompromising stance during the Quit India Movement, was in a way a victory of Netaji’s strategy.
Gandhi’s tone and temper clearly smacked of a revolutionary strategy quite akin to the soul and spirit of Bose. Ideologically they appeared to come nearer.
Violence vs non violence:-
Subhash Chandra Bose adopted violent means for liberation of India and thus led Indian National Army. Gandhi on the other hand was a firm believer of non-violence and led peaceful mass protests
Ideologically Gandhi subscribed to socialist pattern of society where fruits of labour were evenly distributed and favoured trusteeship pattern of relation between Capitalist and labourers.
Subhash Chandra was a keen follower of radical leftist ideology and organized trade unions
Bose wanted to grab the opportunity provided by second world war for India’s freedom, thus approached Germany, Japan while Gandhi saw facism and Nazism a greater danger to Indian polity and society thus co-operated with British. Thus they had a different understanding of same event
Religious teachings had great importance in the life of Gandhi while Subhash Chandra Bose was a leftist and rationalist.
Gandhi’s idea of freedom was based on self rule and rule over self. Bose viewed freedom not only in terms of political self rule but also freedom from socio-economic inequalities, casteism, intolerance etc.
India’s participation in World war II:-
When the Second World War began and Britain got involved in it, Subhash insisted persistently that England’s difficulty is India’s
opportunity and it is the time opportune to launch struggle for freedom.
Gandhi at the time was not prepared to oblige Subhash and immediately launch any struggle to achieve India’s freedom.
Bose sought complete severance from the British empire, while Gandhi’s goal posts vacillated between Spiritual Swaraj, Dominion Status and complete severance.
Stated visions of Gandhi and Bose differed substantially with respect to their desired evolution of India and her politics.
Gandhi advocated a vision comprising of spinning, khadi and local self-sufficiency at village level while Bose held steadfast to a vision of large scale industrialisation and a politics devoid of irrationality and religiosity.
Bose had launched the National Planning Committee for drawing up a comprehensive plan of industrialisation and of development .
Bose believed that his launching of the National Planning Committee as the Congress President, in 1938, for drawing up a comprehensive plan of industrialisation and of development caused further annoyance to Mahatma Gandhi who was opposed to industrialization.
Bose was acutely conscious of the role the armed forces play in the political growth of a nation.
Despite the differences both leaders had immense respect for each other and contributed significantly to the national movement and the nation.
Q3.The informal summit at Wuhan has not managed to achieve much in concrete terms. Critically analyze.
With the recent conclusion of Wuhan Summit, India China relationship has progressed from the nadir it found itself in the recent past.
India clearly viewed this ‘informal summit’ as a trust-building exercise, hoping to quietly sort out problems that existed between the two countries, including the vexed border issue.
It reiterated the need to cooperate on counter-terrorism, and to strengthen the dialogue mechanism to deal with contentious issues and concerns. Both have agreed on the importance of maintaining peace and tranquillity in all areas of the India-China border.
The summit appears to have reinforced the validity of the April 2005 Document on ‘Political Parameters and Guiding Principles for the Settlement of the Boundary Question’.
In the Wuhan consensus joint commitment to maintain peace and tranquillity over the entire India-China border is statedand the direction is given by the leaders to their respective militaries to observe restraint, scrupulously implement Confidence Building Measures and strengthen communication links at all levels.
The avoidance of provocative behaviour by both militaries deployed at the border is critical to maintaining the overall relationship on an even keel. This understanding augurs well for the future.
Agreement between India and China to work together jointly on an economic project in Afghanistan, with details to be worked out through diplomatic channels.
No manifest concessions appear to have been made by China. The Doklam issue (which was not discussed at the summit) remains unresolved,
There are no indications that China has softened its attitudevis-à-vis India’s position in Arunachal Pradesh, or that it will refrain from accusing India of further transgressions here.
China’s penetration of India’s neighbourhood is set to continue, with special emphasis on countries such as Nepal and the Maldives.
China again has not conceded anything with reference to the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.
India-China relations must be managed through a mix of competitive and cooperative policies and regular leadership-level interaction.
The only effective instrument for managing India-China relations will be a significant, sustained and rapid development of India’s economic and security capabilities, thus narrowing the power gap between the two Asian giants.
The two sides need to build mutual strategic trust based on the factthat their common understanding and shared interests are greater than their divergences.
The two countries should realize that they offer each other opportunities without posing any threat, and that peaceful co-existence and win-win cooperation are the right choice for them.
The two countries should prudently and discreetly deal with sensitive issues, including the border dispute, and should not allow such issues to restrain the further development of bilateral ties.
There are several areas, apart from trade and investment, in which the two sides can strengthen cooperation, such as infrastructure construction, urbanization, food security and climate change.
The two countries militaries should maintain regular high-level and non-confrontational dialogues, in order to reduce strategic miscalculations and enhance strategic trust.
The two sides should also build a communication and coordination mechanism to manage their overseas interests, and organize dialogues at academic, media and cultural levels,as well as exchanges between NGOs as a way to improve bilateral ties.
China and India are two bodies, one spirit. So long as the two sides deepen their exchanges and reduce suspicion the strategic value of cooperation would be evident and people would be confident of China-India relations.
Q4. Discuss the objectives of the Draft National Digital Communications Policy, 2018. Also discuss how it aims to achieve the objective of digital sovereignty.(250 words)
Draft telecom policy:-
The key strategies in the draft talks of recognizing spectrum as a key natural resource for public benefit to achieve India’s socio-economic goals
The policy aims to accomplish some of the strategic objectives by 2022 including:
Provisioning of Broadband for All
Creating 4 Million additional jobs in the Digital Communications sector
Enhancing the contribution of the Digital Communications sector to 8% of India’s GDP from ~ 6% in 2017
Propelling India to the Top 50 Nations in the ICT Development Index of ITU from 134 in 2017
Enhancing India’s contribution to Global Value Chains
Ensuring Digital Sovereignty
It has a three point action plan
‘Connect India’ under which it plans to set up a robust digital communications infrastructure
‘Propel India’ where the power of emerging digital technologies, including 5G, artificial intelligence (AI), Internet Of Things (IoT) will be harnessed
‘Secure India’ to focus on ensuring individual autonomy and choice, data ownership, privacy and security
Features of the draft policy:-
There would be the optimal pricing of the spectrumto ensure sustainable and affordable access to digital communications
It also outlined roadmap for high in demand backhaul spectrumfor transmitting signals between mobile towers in E and V band as per international best practices
Constituting a Spectrum Advisory Team (SAT) consisting of experts, industry, and academia to facilitate the identification of new bands, applications and efficiency measures to catalyze innovation and efficient spectrum management
It proposes identifying and making available new spectrum bands for access and backhaul segments for timely deploymentand growth of 5G networks and making available harmonized and contiguous spectrum required for deployment of next-generation access technologies
Setting up National Broadband Mission
The draft talks of establishing a ‘National Broadband Mission -Rashtriya Broadband Abhiyan’ to secure universal broadband access for implementation of broadband initiatives, to be funded through USOF and PPP:
BharatNet for providing 1Gbps to Gram Panchayats upgradeable to 10 Gbps
GramNet for connecting all key rural development institutions with 10Mbps upgradeable to 100 Mbps
NagarNet for establishing one- million public Wi-Fi Hotspots in urban areas
JanWiFi for establishing two-million Wi-Fi Hotspots in rural areas
Implementing a ‘Fibre First Initiative’ to take Optical fiber to the home, to enterprises, and to key development institutions in tier I, II and III towns and to rural clusters
Setting up Telecom Ombudsman
Roadmap for Green Telecom in India
The Policy talks of incentivizing the use of renewable energy technologies in the communications sector
This includes utilization of small cell fuel batteries, lithium-ion batteries or other similar technologies and promoting research and development of green telecom