Q1.Discuss the inter-relationship between monsoon rains and pollution in Indian metros. (150 Words)
Introduction :- Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
The impact of GHGs on Indian Monsoon was being debated however aerosols from vehicular exhaust, half-burnt crop residue, dust and chemical effluents may be weakening the life-giving rainy season even more than GHGs.
Clouds and rain occur when moist, warm air rises from ground level and water condenses or freezes on aerosol particles in the air.
Aerosols can have two effects on this process – on the one hand they act like a sunscreen reducing the amount of sun energy reaching the ground, which reduces the amount of water evaporating to form rainclouds, but on the other hand, clouds cannot form without aerosol particles.
City pollution may also impact cloud formation and rainfall. Water vapor doesn’t ordinarily spontaneously condense into drops to form clouds It needs dirt to form around. All rain needs aerosols to form. However the pollution which releases large number of aerosol quantity produce fewer clouds and less rain.
In the natural world, cloud-forming aerosols are things like sea salt, dust, and pollen, all of which are large particles. But pollution aerosols are usually smaller and more numerous than natural aerosols. With lots of particles to collect on, water coalesces into many tiny droplets instead of larger rain-sized drops.
The scientists found that if there is a surplus of aerosols, the droplets never reach the critical mass needed to fall to earth as rain, as there is not enough water to share between all the aerosol particles.
With rising pollution, the amount of rain at first rises, then maxes out, and finally falls off sharply at very high aerosol concentrations
These results have great significance for countries like Israel where rainfall is scarce and can be easily affected by over-production of aerosols. However for countries like India which are dependent on Monsoon it is causing much problems and irregularities in monsoon.
Q2. Formalisation without preparation leads to exclusion. Critically comment.
According to NSSO data, there have been more jobs created in the informal sector than the formal and more than 90% of the population is employed in informal jobs.
Formalization without preparation will have disastrous impacts :-
Formalization of the economy is often sought as the informal economy can enable illicit activities and create a safe space for tax evaders.
But it also supports the livelihoods of millions of workers who have no opportunities in the formal economy. These are the roadside vendors, marginal farmers, construction workers, cobblers, artisans, fishermen, landless labourers.
In many countries, employment in the informal sector is growing faster than in the formal sector.
In India, according to the 2015-16 Economic Survey out of the 10.5 million new manufacturing jobs created between 1989 and 2010, only 3.7 million — about 35% — were in the formal sector. This indicates that the informal sector is not some aberration that we can simply wish away. It is an integral part of India’s economic framework and we need to pay far more attention to it.
Following steps must be taken by government in order to increase the scope of formal sector without exclusion:-
Financial Inclusion- Access to formal credit, banking facilities and impart financial knowledge. The recent push for promoting digital cashless economy, Scehems such as Jan Dhan Yoajana, Bank Mitras, Lead Bank Scheme, Priority Sector Lending are good steps by the government towards promoting formal economy
Improve quality of human capital- Boosting education and skill levels will provide necessary foundation for the formalization of economy. The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Mid Day Meal Schemes, SWAYAM, Skill Inida Mission are some good initiatives by the government.
Providing robust infrastructure: Improving connectivity through better roads and railways, improving access to cheap electricity would act as an incentive for setting up of formal companies.
Labour laws :- In India there are multiple labour laws and many outdated laws. Easy to understand and coherent set of law is necessary to enable formal sector to comply with it. Focus on increasing Ease of Doing business is also important.
Q3. Examine why India urgently needs a national dementia policy.
Introduction :- Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person’s daily functioning. Other common symptoms include emotional problems, problems with language, and a decrease in motivation. A person’s consciousness is usually not affected. A dementia diagnosis requires a change from a person’s usual mental functioning and a greater decline than one would expect due to aging. These diseases also have a significant effect on a person’s caregivers.
Dementia in India :-
According to recent published figures, over four million Indians above 60 have the condition, which is around 3.7 percent of that population. Approximately, one out of every 16 households with an elder has someone with dementia.
Urgent need of National Dementia policy :-
Alzheimer’s & Related Disorders Society of India (ARDISI) advocated the need for more attention to the condition, given that the number of people with dementia is expected to rise to about 7 million by 2020 and rapidly escalate to reach 13 to 14 million by 2050.
As per the India Dementia Report 2010 about Rs 43,000 annually per family is spent to take care of a person affected by dementia. The cost is high for many.
Current treatments merely address the symptoms and not the underlying biological cause of the disease. With this lack of awareness, lack of specialized doctors make it necessary to formulate a national policy.
Rising tendencies of old age family problems in India make it necessary to have adequate services for Dementia’s treatment with sensitivity towards the care-givers, who are mostly from the family and ageing themselves.
Support from the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment becomes crucial in India as the disease has many social aspects which need awareness and service facilities at the community level, legal provisions to safeguard and protect the rights, dignity and respect of those affected and in minimising economic costs and the burden of the disease, building public campaigns and dementia-friendly initiatives are necessary.
The Global Plan of Action on the Public Health Response to Dementia 2017-2025, adopted by 194 countries of the WHO, calls for a national dementia policy, recognition of human rights of people with dementia and the potential of dementia friendly-communities to give those rights practical effect.
The 2011 World Alzheimer Report said that while there is evidence that early interventions are effective, an astonishing 28 million of the world’s 36 million dementia patients remain undiagnosed
An important aspect of action in dealing with dementia is to work towards risk reduction of the disease. The non-communicable diseases plan of action should include building resources for strengthening brain health by associating it with physical and spiritual health. Above all, it is important that there be focus on supporting people with dementia to maintain their independence as much as they can and retain their inclusion in families, community and society. Stop discrimination against them. Hospitals like NIMHANS, Bangalore are an excellent resource for getting dementia treatment and care. Such institutions can be roped in together once a national policy is in place.
Q4. Accountability in school education system is necessary to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4. Comment.
Introduction :- A quality education is the foundation of sustainable development. As a policy intervention, education is a force multiplier which enables self-reliance, boosts economic growth by enhancing skills, and improves people’s lives by opening up opportunities for better livelihoods. Hence achieving Sustainable Developmental Goal 4 is important.
UNESCO’s new Global Education Monitoring Report 2017/18 is a comprehensive and nuanced look at the role of accountability in global education systems in the effort to achieve the vision of the UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4: to ensure inclusive and quality education for all, and to promote lifelong learning.
The report points out that providing universal quality education depends not on the performance of teachers alone, but is the shared responsibility of several stakeholders: governments, schools, teachers, parents, the media and civil society, international organisations, and the private sector.
SDG 4 :-
Role of accountability :-
In 2014, a UNESCOreport revealed that around 250 million children around the world are in school but not learning the basics. Accountable schooling will ensure that productive years of students will not go waste.
The curriculum regulation and it’s scientific up gradation, maintenance of competitive syllabus and testing patterns, gauging the new trends in interregional and international area in education is important to maintain necessary standards in education.
Accountability in apex educational institutions like UGC, Medical Council of India etc. is utmost important to ensure quality education system in country.
Accountability on parts of school administration in terms of maintain quality libraries, laboratories, extra curricular infrastructure, regular quality teaching staff etc. is important. This will enhance the output of educational standards.
Accountable parents will make it easy for students to sustain in schooling, in competition and in constantly pushing the learnability of children.
Governmental systems must be accountable to ensure that their investment is being utilized efficiently and effectively. The assessment of programmes like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Mid day meal, Rashtriya Ucchatar Shikasha Abhiyan must be done regularly with periodic improvements. This will be prudential in future.
A culture of accountability makes a good system great and a great system unstoppable. Hence accountability of all stakeholders is necessary to achieve the Sustainable Developmental Goal 4