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Mains q/a 16-04-2018




Q1. The National Sports University Bill,2017 will give a big push to sports in INDIA.Throw light on the provisions of the bill.

The National Sports University Bill, 2017, establishes a National Sports University located in Manipur. It will promote sports education in the areas of:

  • Sports sciences: Develop a scientific attitude to sports.
  • Sports technology: Adopting latest technology of international standards.
  • Sports management: Professional management of sports bodies.
  • Sports coaching: Coaching of international standards to budding players/athletes.

The key objectives of the University are:

(i) research, development and dissemination of knowledge in physical education and sports sciences,

(ii) strengthening physical education and sports training programmes,

(iii) generating knowledge capabilities, skills and competence at various levels,

(iv) training talented athletes to help them to evolve into international level athletes.

It will function as a national training centre for select sports disciplines. It may also establish campuses and study centres in other parts of the country. The University, if created, will have the following direct and indirect advantages-

Improvement in standards of sports :

  • The Executive Council will conduct all of the University’s administrative affairs. It will address the issue of sports governance in India.
  • The central government will review and inspect the functioning of the Univer No direct interference would check the issue of politicization of sports federations in India.
  • North-East has immense talent in many sports, especially football. The university may enable India’s entry in FIFA world cup.
  • Generating knowledge capabilities, skills and competence at various levels would address the issue of in-activism of former sportspersons in managing sports bodies.
  • The liberal funding structure (provision of grants and gifts) would help mobilize CSR funds for development of sports infrastructure in India.
  • Research and development in sports medicine, sports sciences etc. would address the issue of players failing doping tests.

Multiplier effects :

  • The university would address the connectivity (physical and emotional) issue of North- East with rest of India.
  • Institutional sports infrastructure would wean youth away from extremism and violence, thus curbing secessionist movements.
  • Sports cuts across sectarian boundaries – It may be a unifying factor across ethnicities (e.g. Kuki and Naga)
  • The university, if successful, can serve as a model to be replicated to set up a chain of world class sports infrastructure across India.

The proposed university would address the issue of India punching below its weight in the field of sports. Apart from potentially being a milestone in transforming sports ecosystem in India, it would go a long way in overall development of North-East.

Q2. Poverty line is the level of income to meet the minimum living conditions.

Poverty line is the amount of money needed for a person to meet his basic needs. It is defined as the money value of the goods and services needed to provide basic welfare to an individual.

Poverty line differs from one country to another, depending upon the idea of poverty

Poverty line changes from one country to another. In developed countries, where there is advanced standard of living and welfare concepts, poverty line is high as basic standard to live include higher consumption requirements and accessibility to many goods and services.

On the other hand, in many less developed countries, the basic requirements will be low and contains mostly essential consumption items needed to sustain life. This means that poverty line is set by the welfare standard in a particular society (economy).

Poverty is ‘relative’ and what poverty in the US or in an advanced West European country may not be poverty in Bangladesh.

Poverty line in India


  • India is having a well-designed poverty measurement mechanism under the erstwhile Planning Commission. The Planning Commission was the nodal agency for estimation of poverty. For setting poverty line and methodology of constructing it, the Planning Commission appointed Expert Groups from time to time. for example, the Rangarajan Committee is the latest among those Expert groups.
  • Traditionally, the planning commission estimates the number of people below poverty line in states as well as the rural and urban areas based upon the prevailing poverty estimation methodology submitted by the expert groups.

Methodology for constructing the poverty line

  • The poverty estimation methodology was revised many times with new expert group/task force appointed by the Planning Commission to look into the matter. Each expert group/task force has devised certain methodology in determining the poverty line.
  • For measuring poverty, a poverty line is set. The poverty line is the level of income needed to meet the minimum standard of living. People who have an income less than this is considered as below poverty line.
  • The concept about minimum consumption standards and consumption levels were changed based upon recommendations of the various expert groups/task force. These expert groups use the NSS (National Sample Survey) estimate the consumption pattern of households from time to time. The NSS’s periodically makes extensive household surveys on expenditure. Here, from the consumption basket of the people, the expert groups pick up the most essential commodities. These commodities are placed under a poverty line basket (PLB).
  • Minimum standard of living is thus expressed as the basket of goods and services commonly used by the people. Based on this consumption pattern, the Expert Groups estimate the minimum consumption levels (and the income needed to buy these) and the income needed to obtain these goods and services in both rural and urban areas. This income level acts as the poverty line.

Poverty line methodology is changing in India

  • Extending from the first attempt to set a poverty line – the Working Group of 1962 to the Rangarajan Task Force (2014), poverty estimation methodology has undergone an evolution in India.
  • Poverty is measured in terms of the Head Count Poverty Ratio (HCPR) as in several other countries. The HCPR is the percentage of the population under the poverty line. This means that it is the absolute poverty that is estimated in India. Poverty ratio is measured in terms of per capita consumption expenditure over a month.

Q3. What is middle income trap?

The Economic Survey 2018 (volume I) makes a theoretical examination of India facing a Late Convergence Stall and the risk of falling into the Middle-Income Trap. Middle income trap is a situation for Middle Income Countries where they are not able to move up to the Higher income status due to the operation of several adverse factors. To understand Middle Income Trap, classification of countries by the World Bank in terms of Per-Capita Income is to be understood.

The World Bank is classifying countries in terms of per capita income. Low income countries are those with a per capita income lower than $1005. Second category is the middle-income group with a per capita income varying from $1006 to $ 12235. This group is the largest one with nearly 81 countries. Countries with a PCI of $12236 and above are classified as higher income economies.

Table: Categorisation of countries in terms of PCI by World Bank using its GNI Atlas method.

Source: World Bank

Category              Per-Capita Income* (2016)

Low Income Countries (LICs)       $1005 or less

Lower Middle-Income Countries (LMICs)               $1006 – $3955

Upper Middle-Income Countries (UMICs)              $3956 – $ 12235

High Income Countries (HICs)     $12236 and more

What is Middle Income Trap?

An irony about middle income countries is that many of them are not moving up to the higher income category where the per capita income is above $12736. This situation of falling at the middle-income level is called the middle-income trap by economists. The “middle-income trap” is the phenomenon of hitherto rapidly growing economies stagnating at middle-income levels (of per capita income) and failing to graduate into the ranks of high-income countries. At the same time, many other countries have made significant progress through industrialization. They were able to expand the national income and thus the per capita income.

By accelerating structural changes and fastening industrialization, India should raise the per capita income in future so that it can attain a per capita income of upper middle income and later to higher income to escape from the trap.

India has entered the middle-income position in 2008 and the per capita income is increasing slowly. The Per Capita Income of the country as per the World Bank’s 2016 estimate is $ 1670. China’s PCI is $ 8250 as per the same estimate. The Economic Survey 2018 examines different threats for India and several other Lower Middle-Income Countries to be trapped at the Middle-Income level.

In terms of the World Bank’s atlas method India’s GDP has just crossed $2 trillion in 2014. According to the PPP method, India is the third largest economy, but according to dollar method, the country is in the seventh position. On the other hand, China has a GDP size of $10 trillion in terms of the atlas method.


Q4. Briefly discuss the consolidation of America after the Revolution.

Early in the 19th century, many new areas were added to the United States. The vast territory in the middle of the continent, known as Louisiana, was purchased from France. Florida was acquired from Spain.

By the 1850′s, after a war with Mexico, the United States had extended its boundaries to the Pacific Ocean. People had continued to move west. The westward expansion of the United States was at the expense of the American Indians who were driven out of their territories and in the course of a few decades their population was reduced to an insignificant number.

Increasing settlements in the west brought about increasing conflicts between the southern states that wanted to extend slavery to the western territories and the northern states that objected to a slave economy. A change of revolutionary significance came with the Civil War when slave-owning states of the south seceded from the Union and set up a separate government.

The Civil War raged from 1861 to 1865 and ended in the defeat of the southern states. It was a victory for the capitalistic industrial states of the north over the slave-owning states of the south. The federal government abolished slavery. The abolition of slavery, however, did not end discrimination against the Black people and their struggle to make equal rights a reality continued.


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