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MAINS Q/A 15-05-2018

Q1.What is meant by Persuasion? How Does Persuasion Differ Today?

According to Perloff (2003), persuasion can be defined as “…a symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people to change their attitudes or behaviors regarding an issue through the transmission of a message in an atmosphere of free choice.”

The key elements of this definition of persuasion are that:

  • Persuasion is symbolic, utilizing words, images, sounds, etc
  • It involves a deliberate attempt to influence others.
  • Self-persuasion is key. People are not coerced; they are instead free to choose.
  • Methods of transmitting persuasive messages can occur in a variety of ways, including verbally and nonverbally via television, radio, Internet or face-to-face communication.

While the art and science of persuasion have been of interest since the time of the Ancient Greeks, there are significant differences between how persuasion occurs today and how it has occurred in the past.

In his book The Dynamics of Persuasion: Communication and Attitudes in the 21st Century, Richard M. Perloff outlines the five major ways in which modern persuasion differs from the past:

  1. The number of persuasive messages has grown tremendously. Think for a moment about how many advertisements you encounter on a daily basis. According to various sources, the number of advertisements the average U.S. adult is exposed to each day ranges from around 300 to over 3,000.
  2. Persuasive communication travels far more rapidly. Television, Radio and the Internet all help spread persuasive messages very quickly.
  1. Persuasion is big business. In addition to the companies that are in business purely for persuasive purposes (such as advertising agencies, marketing firms, public relations companies) and many other businesses are reliant on persuasion to sell goods and services.
  2. Contemporary persuasion is much more subtle. Of course, there are plenty of ads that use very obvious persuasive strategies, but many messages are far more subtle. For example, businesses sometimes carefully craft very specific image designed to urge viewers to buy products or services in order to attain that projected lifestyle.
  3. Persuasion is more complex. Consumers are more diverse and have more choices, so marketers have to be savvier when it comes to selecting their persuasive medium and message.


Q2. What steps have been taken by India for sustainable development?

Step Taken by Indian Government

  1. Ratifying Paris Agreement

The 21st Conference of Parties (COP 21) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) successfully concluded in Paris after intense negotiations by the Parties followed by the adoption of the Paris Agreement on post-2020 actions on climate change. This universal agreement will succeed the Kyoto Protocol. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, it provides a framework for all countries to take action against climate change. Placing emphasis on concepts like climate justice and sustainable lifestyles, the Paris Agreement for the first time brings together all nations for a common cause under the UNFCCC. One of the main focus of the agreement is to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre- industrial level and on driving efforts to limit it even further to 1.5°.

2.The Clean Development Mechanism projects in India

As on 4 January 2016, 1593 out of a total of 7685 projects registered by the CDM executive board are from India, which so far is the second highest in the world with China taking the lead with 3764 projects registered. Indian projects have been issued 191 million CERs, 13.27 per cent of the total number of CERs issued. These projects are in the energy efficiency, fuel switching, industrial processes, municipal solid waste, renewable energy and forestry sectors and are spread across the country. About 90-95 per cent of the CDM projects are being developed by the private sector, facilitating investments of about R583,751 crore (US$ 87.77 billion) in the country, which is more than the total of multilateral grants available for climate change related activities.

  1. State Action Plans on Climate Change:

The State Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCC) aim to create institutional capacities and implement sectoral activities to address climate change. These plans are focused on adaptation with mitigation as co-benefit in sectors such as water, agriculture, tourism, forestry, transport, habitat and energy. So far, 28 states and 5 union territories (UTs) have submitted their SAPCCs to the MoEF&CC. Out of these, the SAPCCs of 32 states and UTs have been endorsed by the National Steering Committee on Climate Change (NSCCC) at the MoEF&CC.

  1. Coal Cess and the National Clean Energy Fund

India is one of the few countries around the world to have a carbon tax in the form of a cess on coal. Not only has India imposed such a cess but it has also been progressively increasing it. The coal cess which was fixed at R50.00 per tonne of coal since 22 June 2010 and increased to R100.00 per tonne of coal in Budget 2014-15, was further doubled to R 200.00 per tonne in the 2015-16 Budget. 8.46 The National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF) which is supported by the cess on coal was created for the purposes of financing and promoting clean energy initiatives, funding research in the area of clean energy and for any other related activities. Till date 56 projects have been recommended by the inter ministerial group (IMG) with total viability gap funding (VGF) of R34,784.09 crore spread over several years. For 2015-16, R4700 crore has been allocated in the Budget for NCEF projects. VGF is also being provided for Namami gange.

  1. National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change

A National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC) has been established with a budget provision of I350 crore for the year 2015-2016 and 2016-2017. It is meant to assist in meeting the cost of national- and state-level adaptation measures in areas that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. The overall aim of the fund is to support concrete adaptation activities that reduce the adverse effects of climate change facing communities, sectors and states but are not covered under the ongoing schemes of state and central governments. The adaptation projects contribute towards reducing the risk of vulnerability at community and sector level. Till date, the NSCCC has approved six detailed project reports (DPR), amounting to a total cost of I117.98 crore, submitted by Punjab, Odisha, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.


Shepherding the achievements of the SDGs is an enormous task that requires the involvement of every sector and each level of society. The experiences of the pilot countries illustrate the opportunities the platform can create for India to build meaningful and lasting state-philanthropy partnerships to achieve the prime minister’s vision of “sabka saath, sabka vikas (collective effort, inclusive growth).


Q3. What are the main provisions of cabinet mission plan?

The Second World War came to an end on 10th August, 1945. After that general elections were held in England and Labour Party headed by Clement Attlee came out victorious. The British government announced in 1946 that they were willing to end their rule over India. For this purpose a Cabinet Mission was sent to hold negotiations with the Indian leaders on the transfer of power.

The Mission was consisting of three cabinet ministers like the Secretary of State Pathick Lawrence, President of Board of Trade Sir Stafford Cripps, and First Lord of the Adminality A.V. Alexander was sent to India. The Mission reached New Delhi on March 24, 1946. Members of the Mission opened negotiations with the Indian leaders.

Main Provisions of the Cabinet Mission Plan:

The Cabinet Mission proposed two-tiered federal plan which was expected to maintain national unity while conceding the largest measure of regional autonomy:

(i) There was to be a federation of the provinces and the States, with the federal central controlling only defence, foreign affairs and communications.

(ii) At the same time, individual provinces could form regional unions to which they could surrender by mutual agreement some of their powers.

(iii) There would be three groups of provinces (i) Group ‘A’ was to include Madras, Bombay, U.P., Bihar, Central Province and Orissa (ii) Group ‘B* was to comprise Punjab, Sindh, N.W.F.P. and British Baluchistan (Muslim majority in most of the areas) (Hi) Group ‘C’ was to include Bengal and Assam.

These groups would draft their own constitutions in consultation with their respective provinces included in each group.

(iv) A Constituent Assembly consisting of 389 members-292 from provinces, 4 from territories governed by Chief Commissioners and 93 from Indian Princely States would draft the Constitution of India.

(v) An interim government at the Central consisting of representatives of all the communities, provinces would be installed on the basis of parity between the representatives of the Hindus and Muslims.


Q4. What is 5th generation fighter aircraft?

In order of difficulty, to be “Generation 5” a fighter needs 5 things.

  1. Integrated Avionics: One system combining all major avionics systems that were traditionally separate (i.e. Flight systems, SMS, Mission computer, Firing control, etc…) and using computer automation to leverage that integration.
  2. Sensor Fusion: Multiple types of active and passive sensors combined into one integrated view of the battlefield.
  3. Super Manuverable: Highly advanced maneuverability, usually from thrust vectoring. With an airframe capable of handling the resulting stress/strain and G-loading.
  4. Super Cruise: Supersonic flight without afterburners.
  5. Stealth: Low radar cross section from all directions combined with low probability intercept radar (LPIR); for example radar using an active electronic scanned array (AESA).


“Generation 4.5” is what we’ve started calling fighters when governments (and/or manufacturers) promised to deliver a “Generation 5” aircraft, but ultimately failed to hit the mark in 1 key area. The results are highly advanced compared to the past generation “gen 4,” but not quite “Gen 5” yet either.

There are no combat ready fighter wings of Generation 5 aircraft in active service anywhere on the planet.

I know people will claim the F-22 is a 5th generation fighter, but 1 or 2 night combat missions against ISIS (who have no radar and no fighters) does not make a combat ready fighter wing of “5th generation” aircraft.

The F-22’s manufacturing was deeply flawed and it’s effectively unusable without a massive retrofit; that no one is willing to pay for. USAF got less than 1/2 the number they wanted, and of the F-22’s delivered more than 60% are not even airworthy and have been grounded indefinitely.

The Russian “5th Generation” fighter (PAK FA) is only a prototype. The final specifications are still unknown.

The Chinese “5th Generation” fighter (J-20); well no one can even call it that with a straight face. It’s a joke. It’s more propaganda than plane; Russian engines from the Cold War and multiple attempts to steal basic American components (like aerospace grade carbon fiber) because they can’t produce their own yet.


Q5.  What is Arya Samaj Movement?

Arya Samaj Movement:

The ideas and feelings expressed by Dayananda took the form of a movement called the Arya Samaj, which was established in 1875 at Lahore. The samaj was required to lay absolute faith in God and in the Vedas.

It propagated the following principles:

  1. God to his followers is intelligent, existent, and blissful. He is formless, omnipo­tent, just, merciful, unborn, endless, unchangeable, and unrivalled.
  2. The Arya Samaj members were required to devote themselves to the physical, social, and spiritual welfare of their fellowmen.

iii. Spreading proper education and a campaigning against ignorance or illusion were regarded as the other objectives of the samaj.

  1. The movement influenced the people of western and northern India. Vedic ratio­nalism and ideals appealed progressive intellectuals.
  2. Campaigned for ancient Aryan type-coeducation leading to the establishment of gurukulas or educational institutions on Vedic pattern: For example Kangri near Haridwar.
  3. Sanskrit and Hindi became the medium of instruction in these Gurukulas even at higher stage.

vii. The Gurukulas emphasized on character building and a spirit of service and dedication on the part of youth.

viii. Philanthropic activities were a part of the Aryan program and the samaj estab­lished homes for orphans, widows, destitutes, and the distressed.

  1. On a militant platform, it condemned Brahmanic rites and rituals, idol worship, and superstitious practices.
  2. It strove to bring to the untouchables the status of the Hindus belonging to the upper castes.
  3. The samaj threw open the doors of Hindu society to the non-Hindus and ini­tiated the Suddhi Movement by which the non-Hindus could be converted to Hinduism.

xii. The samaj spread the image of Hinduism as a missionary religion by propagating its track record of embracing various non-Hindu races such as Greeks, Scythians, Kushans, Sakas, and Hunas who lost their identity in Hindu society by becoming Hindus.

The Arya Samaj movement proved successful in northern India with its dynamic perfor­mance in the field of renaissance.

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