Q1. What are the key recommendations of Draft Agriculture Export Policy, How the Draft policy aims to tackle the Quality Issues.
Key recommendations of the draft policy include:
Stable trade policy: The draft Policy aims to provide assurance that processed agricultural products and organic products will not brought under export restrictions, such as export duty, and export ban.
Involvement of state governments: A nodal state department or agency will be identified for promotion of agriculture export. Such nodal body will be responsible for addressing issues faced by exporters, identifying infrastructure and logistic bottlenecks, among others. Further, agricultural exports must be included in the state export policy.
Cluster development based on products: State governments can identify clusters with high export potential and monitor development through a cluster facilitation framework led by a district collector. Under the draft Policy, 50 district clusters have been identified for export promotion based on horticultural products.
Value added exports: Focus should be on the promotion of value added indigenous and tribal products and organic products.
Platform for stakeholders: Under the draft Policy, a mechanism will be established to link self help groups, farmer producer organisations, cooperatives, private processors and traders. This can include development of an e-commerce platform for providing farmers direct linkage to exports.
Agri-startup fund: Entrepreneurs will be supported in starting a new venture in agribased products exports.
How the Draft policy aims to tackle the Quality Issues:
To minimise rejections on quality issues — sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) and technical barriers to trade (TBT) barriers — the draft proposes to develop a common portal to monitor all export rejections and provide a platform to different nodal agencies to take up a root cause analysis, take corrective action and if required, respond to the partner country regarding action taken.
It suggests creation of an institutional mechanism under the aegis of Department of Commerce with representation of relevant Ministries and Agencies to address India’s market access request, calibrate it with the trading partner’s market access request for accessing the Indian market and quickly respond to SPS/TBT barriers.
Highlighting the need to bring about reforms in APMC Act and streamlining of Mandi fee, the draft proposes using the DGFT field offices, Export Promotion Councils, Commodity Boards and Industry Associations to act as advocacy forum for reform by all the States.
The draft policy also talks about development of export-centric clusters, promoting value added exports through incentives, special focus on value added exports of organic products, developing uniform packaging for organic products, marketing and promotion of ‘produce in India’ through Geographical Indication (GI) registration and putting in place post-harvest infrastructure support for smooth logistical movement of agri produce.
Q2. How education developed in India under east India company and British government?
Education is a powerful tool to unlock the golden door of freedom which can change the world. With the advent of British, their policies and measures breached the legacies of traditional schools of learning and this resulted in the need for creating class of subordinates. To achieve this goal, they instituted a number of acts to create an Indian canvas of English colour through the education system.
Initially, British East India Company was not concerned with the development of education system because their prime motive was trading and profit-making. To rule in India, they planned to educate a small section of upper and middle classes to create a class “Indian in blood and colour but English in taste” who would act as interpreters between the Government and the masses. This was also called the “downward filtration theory”. The following steps and measures were taken by the British for the development of Education in India.The chronological development of Education during the British Period in India is discussed below:
1813 Act & the Education
Charles Grant and William Wilberforce, who was missionary activists, compelled the East India Company to give up its non-invention policy and make way for spreading education through English in order to teach western literature and preach Christianity. Hence, the British Parliament added a clause in 1813 charter that Governor-General-in-Council less than one lakh for education and allowed the Christian Missionaries to spread their religious ideas in India.
Act had its own importance because it was first instance that British East India Company acknowledged for the promotion of education in India.
With the efforts of R.R.M Roy, the Calcutta College was established for imparting Western education. Also three Sanskrit colleges were set up at Calcutta.
General Committee of Public Instruction, 1823
This committee was formed to look after the development of education in India which was dominated by Orientalists who were the great supporter of Oriental learning rather than the Anglican. Hence, they created paramount of pressure on the British India Company to promote Western Education. As a result, spread of education in India got discursive between Orientalist-Anglicist and Macaulay’s resolution come across with clear picture of British education system.
Lord Macaulay’s Education Policy, 1835
This policy was an attempt to create that system of education which educates only upper strata of society through English.
English become court language and Persian was abolished as court language.
Printings of English books were made free and available at very low price.
English education gets more fund as compare to oriental learning.
In 1849, JED Bethune founded Bethune School.
Agriculture Institute was established at Pusa (Bihar)
Engineering Institute was established at Roorkee.
Wood’s Dispatch, 1854
It is considered as the “Magna Carta of English Education in India” and contained comprehensive plan for spreading education in India.
It states the responsibility of State for the spread of education to the masses.
It recommended the hierarchy education level- At bottom, vernacular primary school; at district, Anglo-vernacular High Schools and affiliated college, and affiliated universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras Presidency.
Recommended English as a medium of instruction for higher studies and vernacular at school level
Hunter Commission (1882-83)
It was formed to evaluate the achievements of Wood Dispatch of 1854 under W.W Hunter in 1882.
It underlined the state’s role in the extension and improvement of primary education and secondary education.
It underlined the transfer of control to district and municipal boards.
It recommended two division of secondary education- Literary up to university; Vocational for commercial career.
It was formed to study on the problems Calcutta University and their recommendations were applicable to other universities also.
Their observations were as follows:
12-year school course
3-years degree after the intermediate stage
III. Centralised functioning of universities, unitary residential-teaching autonomous body.
Recommended extended facilities for applied scientific and technological education, teacher’s training and female education.
Hence, we can say the British education system were influence by the aspiration of Christian Missionaries. It was injected to ensure a cheap supply of educated Indians to increase a number of subordinate posts in administration and in British business concern. That’s why, they emphasis on English as a medium of instruction and also to glorified British conquerors and their administration.
Q3. Write a note on the developments that took place in the field of science and technology during Gupta period. (Paper I – Art and Culture)
India had much advanced knowledge in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, and medicine during this period in comparison to any other country in the world.
Arabs borrowed Indian knowledge of science and technology then it was taken by the western world from them.
The mathematics and astronomy originated in Vedic period itself.
BrahmaguptaAryabhata, a great mathematics, wrote the book ‘Aryabhatiya’ in Kusumpura (Pataliputra) at the age of 23 years.
Aryabhatiya is divided into four parts and the most important features of Aryabhata’s mathematical system was the unique system of notation. It is based on the decimal place-value system unknown to other ancient people.
Aryabhata explained various principals of geometry, an area of a triangle, the area of circle and the theorem relating to rectangles.
Brahmagupta was also a famous mathematician. He wrote ‘Brahmsiddhanta’ in A.D. 628. He developed rules for operating with negative qualities and with zero.
MedicineHe began to apply Algebra to astronomical problems.
Jyotisa was an ancient term used for astronomy and astrology. Varahamihira wrote ‘Panchasiddhantika in A.D. 505. He was á popular person in the court of Chandragupta II.
Panchasiddhantika consisted five works (siddhantas), which is popular as Paitamaha, Romaka, Paulisa, Vasishtha, and Surya.
The Suryasiddhanta is the most important and complete work on the astronomy of the period.
Varahamihira wrote Brihatsamhita. This is considered as an encyclopedic work on astrology.
Varahamihira’s son, Prithuyashas also wrote a book on astronomy in about A.D. 600, named as Harashatpanchashika.
Ayurveda, literally means ‘science of longevity.’ This is the name of Indian medical sciences. It originated during the Vedic period.
Vedic literature, particularly, Atharvanaveda consisted of more than seven hundred hymns on the topics related to Ayurveda.
Hastayurveda is a guide book that describes (elaborately) the ‘animal diseases’ particularly about elephants.
Asvasastra was written by sage Salihotra. It is a treatise on the horse.
Mehrauli iron pillar
Chemistry was another science that developed along with the medicine that helped in the development of metallurgy.
Nagarjuna the great Mahayanist was also genus in chemistry.
The Mehrauli iron pillar is a living memorial of this period. It portrays the progress in metallurgy achieved 1,500 years ago by the Indians. It has been surviving without rusting since its establishment (i.e. for over 1,500 years).
Q4. Explain the components of the Umbrella scheme of Krishonnati Yojana. (Paper III- Agriculture)
This Umbrella scheme comprises of 11 Schemes/Missions.These schemes look to develop the agriculture and allied sector in a holistic and scientific manner to increase the income of farmers by enhancing production, productivity and better returns on produce.The Schemes will be continued with an expenditure of Rs.33,269.976 crore for three financial years, i.e., 2017-18, 2018-19 and 2019-20.
The Schemes/Missions focus on creating/strengthening of infrastructure of production, reducing production cost and marketing of agriculture and allied produce. These schemes / missions have been under implementation for varying duration during past few years.
All these schemes/missions were appraised and approved independently as separate scheme/mission. In 2017-18, it has been decided to club all these schemes / missions under one umbrella scheme ‘Green Revolution – Krishonnati Yojana’.
Parts of the scheme:
Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH): It aims to promote holistic growth of horticulture sector; to enhance horticulture production, improve nutritional security and income support to farm Households.
National Food Security Mission (NFSM), including National Mission on Oil Seeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP): It aims to increase production of rice, wheat, pulses, coarse cereals and commercial crops, through area expansion and productivity enhancement in a suitable manner in the identified districts of the country, restoring soil fertility and productivity at the individual farm level and enhancing farm level economy. It further aims to augment the availability of vegetable oils and to reduce the import of edible oils.
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA): NMSA aims at promoting sustainable agriculture practices best suitable to the specific agro-ecology focusing on integrated farming, appropriate soil health management and synergizing resource conservation technology.
Submission on Agriculture Extension (SAME): It aims to strengthen the ongoing extension mechanism of State Governments, local bodies etc., achieving food and nutritional security and socio-economic empowerment of farmers, to institutionalize programme planning and implementation mechanism, to forge effective linkages and synergy amongst various stake-holders, to support HRD interventions, to promote pervasive and innovative use of electronic / print media, inter-personal communication and ICT tools, etc.
Sub-Mission on Seeds and Planting Material (SMSP): SMSP aims to increase production of certified / quality seed, to increase SRR, to upgrade the quality of farm saved seeds, to strengthen the seed multiplication chain, to promote new technologies and methodologies in seed production, processing, testing etc., to strengthen and modernizing infrastructure for seed production, storage, certification and quality etc.
Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanisation (SMAM): SMAM aims to increase the reach of farm mechanization to small and marginal farmers and to the regions where availability of farm power is low, to promote ‘Custom Hiring Centres’ to offset the adverse economies of scale arising due to small landholding and high cost of individual ownership, to create hubs for hi-tech and high value farm equipment, to create awareness among stakeholders through demonstration and capacity building activities, and to ensure performance testing and certification at designated testing centers located all over the country.
Sub Mission on Plant Protection and Plan Quarantine (SMPPQ): It aims to minimize loss to quality and yield of agricultural crops from the ravages of insect pests, diseases, weeds, nematodes, rodents, etc. and to shield our agricultural bio-security from the incursions and spread of alien species, to facilitate exports of Indian agricultural commodities to global markets, and to promote good agricultural practices, particularly with respect to plant protection strategies and strategies.
Integrated Scheme on Agriculture Census, Economics and Statistics (ISACES): It aims to undertake the agriculture census, study of the cost of cultivation of principal crops, to undertake research studies on agro-economic problems of the country, to fund conferences/workshops and seminars involving eminent economists, agricultural scientists, experts and to bring out papers to conduct short term studies, to improve agricultural statistics methodology and to create a hierarchical information system on crop condition and crop production from sowing to harvest.
Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Cooperation (ISAC): It aims to provide financial assistance for improving the economic conditions of cooperatives, remove regional imbalances and to speed up – cooperative development in agricultural marketing, processing, storage, computerization and weaker section programmes; to help cotton growers fetch remunerative price for their produce through value addition besides ensuring supply of quality yarn at reasonable rates to the decentralized weavers.
Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Marketing (ISAM): It aims to develop agricultural marketing infrastructure; to promote innovative and latest technologies and competitive alternatives in agriculture marketing infrastructure; to provide infrastructure facilities for grading, standardization and quality certification of agricultural produce; to establish a nationwide marketing information network; to integrate markets through a common online market platform to facilitate pan-India trade in agricultural commodities, etc.
National e-Governance Plan (NeGP-A): It aims to bring farmer centricity & service orientation to the programmes; to enhance reach & impact of extension services; to improve access of farmers to information &services throughout crop-cycle; to build upon, enhance & integrate the existing ICT initiatives of Centre and States; and to enhance efficiency & effectiveness of programs through making available timely and relevant information to the farmers for increasing their agriculture productivity.