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Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress -1916

Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress -1916

  • The landmark Lucknow session of INC, presided by Ambika Charan Majumdar, witnessed two big events

REUNION OF EXTREMISTS AND MODERATES

Extremists were readmitted back to the fold of Congress. This was facilitated by many factors such as —

  1. The split was detrimental to both the extremists and moderates who were aware of the drawbacks now
  2. The old issues were irrelevant to both the sides now as the times had changed
  3. Tilak and Annie Besant had made efforts for the reunion. To achieve this, tilak placated to the moderates by denouncing the acts of violence. He also toned down the demands of overthrow of colonial rule and agreed to administrative reform.
  4. The reunion was facilitated by the death of two moderates – Pheroz Shah Mehta and Gokhale.

LUCKNOW PACT BETWEEN MUSLIM LEAGUE AND CONGRESS

  • Congress and Muslim league came together to present common demands to the government.
  • This coming together of Muslim league and congress was facilitated by the presence of younger generation of members of Muslim league.
  • The league was gradually turning into anti imperialist organization.                      Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress -1916

The major reasons for the shift in the league’s position were —

  1. Britain had refused to help Turkey in its war in Balkans (1912-13) and with Italy during 1911. The Turkish Khalifa was religio political leader of all muslims and the denial of help infuriated the muslims.                                    Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress -1916
  2. Those who supported the partition of Bengal were annoyed at its annulment.
  3. The refusal of British government to setup a University at Aligarh with powers to affiliate colleges all over India also alienated some muslims.
  4. The limited political outlook of Aligarh school was not able to placate the younger members of the League who wanted to participate in bolder national politics. Hence, the league found itself on the same side with congress favouring self government.                          Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress -1916

A mutual agreement between congress and the league was signed where congress had to agree to separate electorate for muslims in return for league agreeing to the joint constitutional demands. The joint demands were —

  1. The British government should agree to confer self-government to Indians at an early date.
  2. More expansion and more powers to be given to legislative councils
  3. Indians should constitute 50% of the viceroy’s executive council

ILL EFFECT OF THE LUCKNOW PACT

  • The acceptance of separate electorate by congress led to the recognition of Muslim league as representing a separate section of Indian society and the seeds of partition were sowed.
  • This was a major event in the evolution of two nation theory of the Muslim league.                        Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress -1916
  • They lacked in their efforts to bring together the masses although they put together a show of unity.

ALSO READ : https://www.brainyias.com/the-birth-of-indian-national-congress/

Modern History

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