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Lord Hastings

By : brainykey   March 6, 2018

Lord Hastings

  • Marquess of Hastings (Lord Hastings) was appointed Governor-General of India on November 11, 1812.
  • His tenure in India as Governor-General was a notable one, as he won two wars namely the Gurkha War (1814–1816) and the Maratha War (1818).
  • The Second Anglo-Maratha War had shattered the power of the Maratha chiefs but not their spirit.
  • The loss of their freedom rankled in their hearts.
  • They made a desperate last attempt to regain their independence and old prestige in 1817.
  • The lead in organizing a united front of the Maratha chiefs was taken by the Peshwa who was smarting under the rigid control exercised by the British Resident.
  • However, once again the Marathas failed to evolve a conceded and well-thought out plan of action.
  • The Peshwa attacked the British Residency at Poona in November 1817.
  • Madhoji II Bhonsle (also known as Appa Sahib) of Nagpur attacked the Residency at Nagpur, and Madhav Rao Holkar made preparations for war.

  • The Governor-General, Lord Hastings, struck back with characteristic vigor.
  • Hastings compelled Sindhia to accept British suzerainty, and defeated the armies of the Peshwa, Bhonsle, and Holkar.
  • The Peshwa was dethroned and pensioned off at Bithur near Kanpur.
  • His territories were annexed and the enlarged Presidency of Bombay brought into existence.
  • Holkar and Bhonsle accepted subsidiary forces.
  • All the Maratha chiefs had to cede to the Company large tracts of their territories.
  • To satisfy Maratha pride, the small Kingdom of Satara was founded out of the Peshwa’s lands and gave to the descendant of Chhatrapati Shivaji who ruled it as a complete dependent of the British.
  • Like other rulers of Indian states, the Maratha chiefs too existed from now on at the mercy of the British power.
  • The Rajputana states had been dominated for several decades by Sindhia and Holkar.
  • After the downfall of the Marathas, they lacked the energy to reassert their independence and readily accepted British supremacy.
  • By 1818, the entire Indian sub-continent excepting the Punjab and Sindh had been brought under British control.
  • Some part of India was ruled directly by the British and the rest by a host of Indian rulers over whom the British exercised paramount power.
  • The British protected states had virtually no armed forces of their own, nor did they have any independent foreign relations.
  • However, they were autonomous in their internal affairs, but even in this respect, they acknowledged British authority wielded through a Resident.
  • The British protected states paid heavily for the British forces stationed in their territories to control them.

Lord Hastings – Lord Hastings – Lord Hastings

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