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LOC and LAC

LOC and LAC

What is LOC?

  • LOC or Line of Control is a live line with a lot of activities like firing and face to face interaction. It is clearly demarcated by the militaries. It denotes a kind of boundary separating parts of Indian UT i.e. Jammu & Kashmir; controlled by India and illegally occupied by Pakistan. The length of LOC is around 776-kilometers.
  • Indian part (southern and eastern parts of the region) of LOC is known as Jammu and Kashmir which constitutes about 45 percent of Kashmir.

What is LAC?

  • LAC stands for Line of Actual Control. It is a boundary between China and India. The concept of “Line of Actual Control” (LAC) came in a bilateral agreement in 1993, although there was no concrete settlement on ground positions between these two countries.
  • The LAC separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory. It is a big empty region and nearly 50 to 100 kms distance is maintained by the armies of India and China.
  • The Chinese government considers LAC to be around 2,000 km while India considers the LAC to be 3,488 km long.
  • LAC is divided into three regions: the western sector in Ladakh, the middle sector in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and the eastern sector which spans Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim.

LOC Vs LAC

  • LOC stands for Line of Control.It defines the boundary separating parts of Kashmir controlled by India and Pakistan.LAC stands for Line of Actual Control.It is also a boundary between India and China.LOC is a demarcated border marked by the militaries.On the other hand,LAC is not demarcated and consists of a vast empty space.
  • LOC or Line of Control denotes a kind of boundary separating parts of Kashmir controlled by India and Pakistan.LOC is nearly 435 miles or 700 km long.The part controlled by India is known as Jammu and Kashmir.It is a state which constitutes the southern and eastern parts of the region.It basically covers about 45 percent of Kashmir.
  • Areas controlled by Pakistan comprises of three parts known as Azad Kashmir,Gilgit and Balistan.These regions lie in the northern and western portions of Kashmir.It measures about 35 percent of Kashmir.Rest 20 percent of the area is controlled by China.It is known as Aksai Chin.It lies in the northeastern part of the region.
  • India and Pakistan gained Independence from Britain in 1947,and Kashmir became a part of India.Later in 1949,a mutual agreed ceasefire line was drawn in order to resolve the dispute of India and Pakistan over Kashmir.In 1972,after the Simla Agreement,the two ends agreed for Line of Control.Bt still,this issue remains a sensitive one and many times have been an issue of war between India and Pakistan.

India at LAC

  • Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) has five battalions deployed in Eastern Ladakh including those on the Line of Actual Control (LAC).
  • ITBP does not have its own integral intelligence setup so essential in an operational situation.
  • The DIG Headquarter controlling these forces is located at Srinagar, 258 air km and 418 road km from Leh. Zoji La, on the Himalayan Range, and located on the main highway from Srinagar to Leh,  is closed to road traffic from November to end May.
  • Considering the separation of the Headquarter from the units, an adhoc Headquarter is functional under the Deputy at Leh – a compromise solution at best, considering the division of resources.
  • ITBP communications are based, primarily, on High Frequency radio, which is most vulnerable to interception and being jammed when required particularly in an operational situation.
  • The role of ITBP amplifies the tasks of the Force as –  to guard the Northern borders and prevent violations and encroachments, prevent smuggling, unauthorized movement of goods, weapons, personnel and such like non-traditional threats in the border areas.
  • ITBP does not have its own integral intelligence setup so essential in an operational situation.
  • Thus the orientation of the force is essentially towards “policing” tasks.


India at LOC | LOC and LAC

  • India constructed a 550 km (340 mi) barrier along the 740 km (460 mi) Line of Control. The fence generally remains about 150 yards on the Indian-controlled side. Its stated purpose is to exclude arms smuggling and infiltration by Pakistani-based separatist militants.
  • The barrier itself consists of double-row of fencing and concertina wire 8–12 ft (2.4–3.7 m) in height, and is electrified and connected to a network of motion sensors, thermal imaging devices, lighting systems and alarms. They act as “fast alert signals” to the Indian troops who can be alerted and ambush the infiltrators trying to sneak in. The small stretch of land between the rows of fencing is mined with thousands of landmines.
  • The construction of the barrier was begun in the 1990s, but slowed in the early 2000s as hostilities between India and Pakistan increased. After a November 2003 ceasefire agreement, building resumed and was completed in late 2004.
  • LoC fencing was completed in Kashmir Valley and Jammu region on 30 September 2004. According to Indian military sources, the fence has reduced the numbers of militants who routinely cross into the Indian side of the disputed state to attack soldiers by 80%.

Crossing points at LOC

  • There are three main crossing points on the LoC currently operational. These are, from north to south:
    • Chakothi / Salamabad
    • Tatrinote / Chakan Da Bagh
    • Chilliana / Teetwal
  • Two further crossings are at Haji Pir pass and one near Tattapani, but these are currently not operational.

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