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Mammals (Terrestrial)

Large Rock Rat or Elvira Rat

  • Elvira rat is a medium sized rat. It is nocturnal and has a tendency to burrow.
  • It is found in rocky areas of deciduous forests. In India, it is mainly found in Tamil Nadu.

Namdapha Flying Squirrel

  • It is found in Namdapha (Arunachal Pradesh).
  • It is also known as the flying squirrel, because it jumps from high trees and glides through the air like a kite.
  • It is killed by native communities for food.

Malabar Civet

  • It is one of the world’s rarest mammals endemic to India.
  • It is found in the Malabar region of Kerala (Western Ghats).
  • It is nocturnal in nature. Its habitat is both plains and hill slopes.

Kashmir Stag/Hangul

  • It is a subspecies of deer. It is the state animal of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • It is also found in Chamba, Himachal Pradesh.

Wild Ass

  • It is found in the Rann of Kutch.
  • Its population has significantly reduced due to spread of disease and habitat degradation because of excessive salt in the soil.                              LIST OF IMPORTANT ANIMAL SPECIES THREATENED IN INDIA

Golden Langur

  • It is the former species (primate) of monkey.
  • Its fur is golden in colour. It is found in western Assam.

Himalayan/White Bellied Musk Deer

  • It is found in Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Sikkim. It lacks antlers (branched horns on head) but possesses a pair of enlarged canines that grow continuously.
  • The musk deer is called so because of the presence of the gland in the male musk deer.
  • Musk is used for making medicines, perfumes, etc.

Lion-tailed Macaque

  • It looks like a monkey.
  • It is found in the pockets of Western Ghats in evergreen forests of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Nilgiri Tahr

  • It is the state animal of Tamil Nadu. It is present in the grasslands of Western Ghats.
  • It has two large horns on its head.

Great Indian One-horned Rhinoceros

  • It is found in Assam in the Kaziranga National Park, Manas National Park and in the Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary. It prefers foothills of Himalayas.
  • It is killed because of the oriental belief that its horns have medicinal properties.

Tibetian Antelope/Chiru

  • It is found in Tibet and Himalayan region. It is hunted for its wool which is used to make shahtoosh shawls, scarfs, etc.                                LIST OF IMPORTANT ANIMAL SPECIES THREATENED IN INDIA
  • The Chinese government accuses that demand for shahtoosh shawls in India leads to illegal poaching of Tibetan antelope.

Black Buck

  • It is killed for its meat and sporting trophies (hunting events).
  • It exhibits sexual dimorphism, i.e., large differences between male and female of the species.
  • It prefers grasslands. It is found in the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, parts of Deccan, Odisha and West Bengal.

Red Panda

  • It is found at the lesser altitude in the Himalayas in temperate forests (colder coniferous forests).
  • It is found in Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam.

Sangai Deer

  • It is the subspecies of brow-antlered deer found only in Manipur, India. It is also the state animal of Manipur.
  • It lives in the marshy wetland in Keibul Lamjao, about 45 km from Imphal.
  • Its habitat is located in the southern parts of the Loktak Lake, which is the largest freshwater lake in eastern India.                                  LIST OF IMPORTANT ANIMAL SPECIES THREATENED IN INDIA
  • The habitat of Sangai is now protected at the Keibul Lamjao National Park.

Kharai Camel

  • Kharai camel or swimming camels are found in Gujarat’s Bhuj area. Gujarat is the only home to Kharai camel. Kharai camel can live in both coastal and dry ecosystems.
  • It grazes on mangrove trees and is tolerant to high saline water.
  • It can swim up to three kilometres into the sea in search of mangroves.
  • The camel is distinct from other camels because of its rounded back, long and thin legs and small feet.
  • The camel has adapted to the extreme climate of Rann and shallow seas and high salinity.
  • Its population is less than 10,000. Its population is available in the wild habitat as well as in the domesticated habitat.                                  LIST OF IMPORTANT ANIMAL SPECIES THREATENED IN INDIA

Mammals (Marine)

Gangetic Dolphin

  • It is recognised as the national aquatic animal. It is found in Ganga and its tributaries.
  • Its presence indicates the pollution level in Ganga. Freshwater dolphins are rare.
  • Saltwater dolphins are in abundance

Sea Cow/Dugong

  • It is found in the Gulf of Mannar (Tamil Nadu).
  • Its front side resembles a cow.                    LIST OF IMPORTANT ANIMAL SPECIES THREATENED IN INDIA


Bengal Florican

  • It is a bustard subspecies known for its mating dance. It is prevalent in grasslands.
  • Males attract females through dance for mating purpose.
  • In India, Bengal Florican is found in Uttar Pradesh, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh

Siberian Crane

  • It migrates from the Siberian region to Keoladeo Ghana National Park in Rajasthan during winter months.
  • It is also called Siberian white crane or snow crane due to its whitish appearance.
  • However, because of destruction of its habitats, its population has disappeared in India.


  • It is also a migratory bird. It arrives in Western Ghats from various places.
  • It is reddish in appearance.                  LIST OF IMPORTANT ANIMAL SPECIES THREATENED IN INDIA


  • It is also a migratory bird.
  • It is a bird which prefers water bodies such as large lakes.


Olive ridley turtle

  • Olive ridley is a sea turtle. It has nesting sites in Bhitarkanika and Gahirmatha, Odisha.
  • Due to interference in the coastal environment, fewer turtles arrive at the coast of Odisha to lay eggs.

Saltwater Crocodile

  • It survives in marine environment.
  • It is found in India in Sundarbans, Bhitarkanika and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.


  • The gharial also known as the gavial, is a fish-eating crocodile.
  • It is India’s most critically endangered reptile species. According to IUCN, nearly 250 gharials are present in the wild.                          LIST OF IMPORTANT ANIMAL SPECIES THREATENED IN INDIA
  • Gharial, also known as long-nosed crocodile, is the longest living species of crocodilians in the world.
  • Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary located on river Chambal in the state of Madhya Pradesh is home to gharials.
  • The sanctuary is near the tri-point of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.


Environment & Biodiversity

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