List of Governors-General of India
List of Governors-General of India
WARREN HASTINGS (1773-1785):
- Brought the Dual Government of Bengal to an end by the Regulating Act, 1773.
- In 1781, he founded the Calcutta Madrasa for promotion of Islamic studies. This was the first educational institute established by the Company’s government.
- Auctioned the right to collect land revenue to the highest bidder: Divided Bengal into districts and appointed collectors and other revenue officials. Zamindars were given judicial powers; establishment of civil and criminal courts in each district.
LORD CORN WALLIS (1786-93):
- First person to codify laws in 1793. The code separated the revenue administration from the administration of justice.
- Introduced Permanent settlement system in which the land was given on permanent basis to the zamindar in 1793.
- Fought the famous Anglo Mysore war.
LORD WELLESLEY (1798-1805):
- Started Subsidiary Alliance system to achieve British paramountcy in India.
- He opened college to train the Company’s servants in Calcutta. That is why he is also called the Father of the Civil Services in India .
- Fought Fourth Mysore war, second Maratha War.
LORD HASTINGS (1813-23):
- Introduced the Ryotwari settlement in Madras.
- Fought third Maratha war.
- The first vernacular newspaper Samahar Patrika begin to be published during his time.
LORD WILLIAM BENTINCK (1828-1833):
- Replacement of Persian by vernaculars and Scott language, introduction of the residuary system.
- English accepted as the medium of instruction after the famous Macaulay’s recommendation; Medical colleges at Calcutta in 1835.
- Abolition of sati in 1829. Suppression of thuggee in central India; banning of female infanticide; banning of human sacrifice; reform in the Hindu Law of Inheritance.
LORD DALHOUSIE (1848-1856):
- He is famous for the the Doctrine of Lapse. The second Anglo Sikh War and did Sikh power and Punjab was annexed.
- First railway line was led from Bombay to Thana, in 1853.
- Served Charles Woods despatch on Education (1854) recommended the setting up of universities in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. In 1853, competitive examination for the Indian Civil Services began.
- He also passed Widow Remarriage Act, 1856.
LORD CANNING (1856-1858):
- Annexation of Avadh, enactment of Hindu Widow Remarriage Bill, 1857.
- Establishment of universities at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. List of Governors-General of India
- Passed the Act of 1858, which ended the rule of the East India Company. Mutiny took place in his time.
- Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse.
LORD LYTTON (1876-80):
- Pursued free trade and abolished duties which accelerated drain of wealth of India.
- Arranged the Grand Darbar in Delhi (in 1877) when the country was suffering from a servere famine.
- Passed the infamous Vernacular Press Act (1878).
- Proposed the plan of Statutory Civil Service in 1878-79 and lowered the maximum age limit from 21 to 19 years.
LORD RIPON (1880-84):
- Repeal of the Vernacular Press Act, 1882.
- The First Factory Act, 1881 to improve labour condition
- Resolution of Local Self Government in 1882.
- Resolution on Land Revenue Policy.
- Appointed Hunter Commission (for education reforms) in 1882.
- The Ilbert Bill controversy erupted during his time (1883) enabled Indian
district magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later. List of Governors-General of India
LORD CURZON (1899-1905) :
- Appointed a Police Commission to review police administration
- Set up the Universities Commission and accordingly the Indian Universities Act of 1904 was passed.
- Partition of Bengal took place in 1905.
LORD CHELMSFORD (1916-21) :
- Home Rule League launched by Tilak and Annie Besant (1916).
- Lucknow Pact between Congress and Muslim League (1916).
- Arrival of Gandhi in India (1915); Champaran Satyagraha (1917).
- Montague’s August Declaration (1917).
- Government of India Act (1919), Repressive Rowlatt Act (1919).
- Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919), Khilafat Movement (1920-22).
- Non-cooperation Movement (1920-22). List of Governors-General of India
LORD LINLITHGOW (1936-43):
- Congress ministries in 1937 and Resignation of Congress ministries in 1939.
- ‘Deliverance Day’ by Muslim League in 1939; Foundation of Forward Block by S.C. Bose (1939); Lahore Resolution (1940); August Offer (1940); Cripps Mission (1942); Quit India Movement (1942) and outbreak of second world war in 1939.
LORD WAVELL (1943-1947):
- R. Formula 1944.
- WaveII Plan and Shimla Conference in 1945.
- INA Trials in 1945; Naval mutiny in 1946.
- Cabinet Mission, 1946 and acceptance of its proposals by Congress.
- Direct Action Day by the Muslim League on 16th August, 1946 and first meeting of the constituent assembly was held on Dec. 9, 1946.
LORD MOUNTBATTEN (MAR-AUG 1947):
- Introduction of Indian Independence Bill in the house of Commons. List of Governors-General of India
- Appointment of 2 boundary commissions under Sir Cryil Radicliffe.