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LINKAGES BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT AND SPREAD OF EXTREMISM | Internal Security

INTRODUCTION | LINKAGES BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT AND SPREAD OF EXTREMISM

  • Improvement in standard of living is something that everyone craves for and deserves it too. It involves, apart from decent food clothing and shelter, quality education and health and also dignified living. It is the absence of these things that incited masses against colonial government.
  • While it has been the policy of governments around the world today to emphasise on “inclusive development”, there are always groups in every state who feel alienated because they perceive that they are left out of the developmental efforts. Such perceptions coupled with inefficient and corrupt governance create an ideal condition for extremism and militancy.
  • More than lack of development, it is the perception of injustice, misgovernance and inability of the system to engage the disaffected lot that leads people to violence and extremism.

Major Components Of Development

  • Economic development: Employment, per capita income, industrial development
  • Social development: Gender equality, women empowerment, pluralistic development, respect for diversity, Education of children, social security, etc.
  • Political development: Democracy, political righs, civil liberties
  • Human development: Health, education, human rights, life with dignity and self-esteem
  • Infrastructure development: Transport, communication, highways, telephone connectivity, internect connectivity
  • Administrative development: good governance, time bound justice, public participation in government, pro-people governance

What are Particularly vulnerable Tribes (PVTGs)?

  • The particularly vulnerable tribes are more vulnerable sections among the tribals.
  • Among the tribals, more assertive and relatively developed tribal groups take the major chunk of development assistance and the PVTGs are left behind.
  • This was recognised by the Dhebar commission which created a separate category named primitive tribal groups in 1973 which was renamed as PVTGs in 2006.
  • Today there are 75 tribes are identified as PVTGs. Most of these are found in Odisha.

Major Issues Faced By Tribals In The Eastern India

  • Mining-related displacement of PVTGS,
  • Trafficking of women and girls,
  • Oppression by CRPF especially on tribal women,
  • Village schools being occupied by para-military forces,
  • Violation of PESA and FRA,
  • Acute poverty conditions of pvtgs like Mankidia, Khadia and Paudi Bhuiyan and  high prevalence of malnutrition and starvation deaths among these communities

Factors Responsible For Spread Of Extremism | Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism

  • Tribal dissatisfaction with the government:The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 deprives tribals, who depend on forest produce for their living, from even cutting a bark.Massive displacement of tribal population in the naxalism-affected states due to development projects, mining operations and other reasons.Easy Target for Maoists: Such people who do not have any source of living are taken into naxalism by Maoists.Maoists provide arms and ammunitions and money to such people.
  • Economic factors: unemployment, poverty, lack of health facilities, lack of education and awaremness, no access to elecricity, internet connectivity, communication etc. increasing gap between rich and poor
  • Socio-economic gaps among population in the country: Government measuring its success on the basis of number of violent attacks rather than the development done in the naxal-affected areas. Absence of strong technical intelligence to fight with naxalites. Infrastructural problems, for instance, some villages are not yet connected properly with any communication network.
  • Governance deficit: lack of routine administration, absence of administration in remote areas, no initiatives from state government against the issue, poor implementation as well as mismanagement of government schemes
  • Confusion over tackling naxalism as a social issue or as a security threat.

Major Issues Faced By Tribals In The The Southern India

  • Issues of the tribal in southern states are different from other central and eastern states. Tribal in southern states – Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh face different forms of discrimination.
  • There is no schedule area in any southern states except Andhra Pradesh.
  • PVTGs like Errula tribes face many forms of exploitation in their day-to-day life. They are deprived of natural resources and livelihood.
  • The status and condition of women and girls is more deplorable than tribal men. Some tribal like Irulas, who depend on the sea coast, are increasingly losing their access to the sea and its resources, due to the interference of big trawlers and climate-related challenges like frequent high tides.
  • Hunger, dignity and lack of governance are important issues of tribal in these States.
  • Availability, accessibility and affordability of food and other essentials are very important but not in place.
  • The law and order situation in tribal areas is totally disturbed and out of control.

Steps taken by the Government | Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism

  • Operation Green Hunt: It was started in 2010 and massive deployment of security forces was done in the naxal-affected areas. From 223 districts that were affected due to naxalism in the year 2010, the number has come down to 90 in nine years.
  • Grey Hound Police: The Greyhounds are an elite commando force of Andhra Pradesh, India created to combat left wing extremists. It is considered the best anti Naxalite force in the country, even above the CRPF’s CoBRA which has more men, budget and better arms than the Greyhounds. Greyhound is a simple but effective organization and recruits the best of the best from the Andhra Pradesh Police. The Force is also known for its guerrilla approach and its functioning in the field, which is near similar to that of the Maoists. Greyhound commandos often exclaim that their strength does not lie in them being a special force with special training, but it lies in the fact that it is more of a guerrilla force than a special force. The commandos of Greyhounds undergo rigorous training and have a strict day to day combat regime. They are highly paid, motivated and well-armed.
  • The government even started ‘Relief and Rehabilitation Policy’ for bringing naxalites into mainstream.
  • Aspirational Districts Programme: Launched in 2018, it aims to rapidly transform the districts that have shown relatively lesser progress in key social areas.
  • Salwa Judum: So called People’s movement was named Salwa Judum, to mean, “Peace hunt” in the local Gondi tribal dialect. The movement was launched by a few villagers angered by Naxal interference in the local trade of tendu leaves (used for making bidis). However, later on, it was alleged that maintaining law and order in Dantewada and Bastar was outsourced to the Salwa Judum cadres, some of them as young as 15–16 years in age. Some 5000 such cadres were made Special Police Officer s (SPOs), given a rifle each and paid Rs 1500–2000 a month. Poorly trained, ill equipped and immature, some of the Salwa Judum cadres themselves looted many tribal villages. It resulted in civil war like situation in these regions. Last year, Supreme Court ruled that this movement id unconstitutional and only state has responsibility of maintaining law and order

Constitutional And Legal Safeguards For Tribal Population | Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism

  • Scheduled Areas
    • The Scheduled Tribes living in contiguous areas. Therefore, an area approach is followed for development activities as well as regulatory provisions to protect their interests.
    • To protect the interests of STs with respect to land and other social issues, various provisions have been enshrined in the Fifth and the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution.
  • Equality before Law (Article 14)
    • The scheduled castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities Act), 1989
    • The act was introduced to prevent the offences of atrocities committed against the members of the scheduled tribes.
    • It provides for the trial of such offences and rehabilitation of victims of such offences.
    • Recently the act was strengthened against a court ruling that provided for prior approval before the arrest of the accused. By the amendment of the act, previous protections were restored.
  • Grants-in-Aid
    • Grants-in-Aid from the Consolidated Fund of India for the welfare of the Scheduled Tribes and administration of Scheduled Areas under Article 275(1)
  • The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996
    • The Bhuria Committee’s (1991) recommendation brought this act. It safeguards the traditions and customs of the people, and their culture, identity, traditional resources.
    • Under the act, the Gram Sabha or Panchayats at the appropriate level shall be consulted before making the acquisition of the land in scheduled areas rehabilitation of the project affected people in the scheduled areas.
    • But the most important step to protect tribal rights was the passage of The Scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers (recognition of forest rights) act, 2006.
  • Recognition of Forest Rights Act, 2006
    • The act was enacted to recognize and vest the forest rights and occupation in forest land in forest dwelling scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers who have been residing in such forests for generations.
  • The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989
    • This act has been introduced to prevent the commission of offences of atrocities against members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, to provide for the trial of such offences and for the relief of rehabilitation of the victims of such offences and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement act, 2013
    • The new act provided for land acquisition as well as rehabilitation and resettlement. It replaced the Land Acquisition Act, 1894.
    • The process for land acquisition involves a Social Impact Assessment survey, preliminary notification stating the intent for acquisition, a declaration of acquisition, and compensation to be given by a certain time. All acquisitions require rehabilitation and resettlement to be provided to the people affected by the acquisition.
    • Compensation for the owners of the acquired land shall be four times the market value in case of rural areas and twice in case of urban areas.
    • The new law stipulates mandatory consent of at least 70 per cent for acquiring land for public-privatepartnership (PPP) projects and 80 per cent for acquiring land for private companies.
    • Purchase of large pieces of land by private companies will require provision of rehabilitation and resettlement.
    • The provisions of this act shall not apply to acquisitions under 16 existing legislations including the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005, the Atomic Energy Act, 1962, the Railways Act, 1989, etc.

What Should Be Done?  | Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism

  • Emphasising more on community development, hunam rights, governance, service delivery and social and political greivances
  • Ensuring social security and livelihood security
  • Effective implementation of government schemes and protective legislations
  • Improving infrastusture in the area to push the tribal population towards development
  • Protecting tribal rights
  • Employment generation through tax holidays to investment in infrastructure development in those areas
  • Improvement in standard of living is something that everyone craves for and deserves it too. It involves, apart from decent food clothing and shelter, quality education and health and also dignified living. It is the absence of these things that incited masses against colonial government.
  • While it has been the policy of governments around the world today to emphasise on “inclusive development”, there are always groups in every state who feel alienated because they perceive that they are left out of the developmental efforts. Such perceptions coupled with inefficient and corrupt governance create an ideal condition for extremism and militancy.
  • More than lack of development, it is the perception of injustice, misgovernance and inability of the system to engage the disaffected lot that leads people to violence and extremism.

Major Components Of Development | Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism

  • Economic development: Employment, per capita income, industrial development
  • Social development: Gender equality, women empowerment, pluralistic development, respect for diversity, Education of children, social security, etc.
  • Political development: Democracy, political righs, civil liberties
  • Human development: Health, education, human rights, life with dignity and self-esteem
  • Infrastructure development: Transport, communication, highways, telephone connectivity, internect connectivity
  • Administrative development: good governance, time bound justice, public participation in government, pro-people governance

What are Particularly vulnerable Tribes (PVTGs)?

  • The particularly vulnerable tribes are more vulnerable sections among the tribals.
  • Among the tribals, more assertive and relatively developed tribal groups take the major chunk of development assistance and the PVTGs are left behind.
  • This was recognised by the Dhebar commission which created a separate category named primitive tribal groups in 1973 which was renamed as PVTGs in 2006.
  • Today there are 75 tribes are identified as PVTGs. Most of these are found in Odisha.

Major Issues Faced By Tribals In The Eastern India

  • Mining-related displacement of PVTGS,
  • Trafficking of women and girls,
  • Oppression by CRPF especially on tribal women,
  • Village schools being occupied by para-military forces,
  • Violation of PESA and FRA,
  • Acute poverty conditions of pvtgs like Mankidia, Khadia and Paudi Bhuiyan and  high prevalence of malnutrition and starvation deaths among these communities

Factors Responsible For Spread Of Extremism | Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism

  • Tribal dissatisfaction with the government:The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 deprives tribals, who depend on forest produce for their living, from even cutting a bark.Massive displacement of tribal population in the naxalism-affected states due to development projects, mining operations and other reasons.Easy Target for Maoists: Such people who do not have any source of living are taken into naxalism by Maoists.Maoists provide arms and ammunitions and money to such people.
  • Economic factors: unemployment, poverty, lack of health facilities, lack of education and awaremness, no access to elecricity, internet connectivity, communication etc. increasing gap between rich and poor
  • Socio-economic gaps among population in the country: Government measuring its success on the basis of number of violent attacks rather than the development done in the naxal-affected areas. Absence of strong technical intelligence to fight with naxalites. Infrastructural problems, for instance, some villages are not yet connected properly with any communication network.
  • Governance deficit: lack of routine administration, absence of administration in remote areas, no initiatives from state government against the issue, poor implementation as well as mismanagement of government schemes
  • Confusion over tackling naxalism as a social issue or as a security threat.

Major Issues Faced By Tribals In The The Southern India

  • Issues of the tribal in southern states are different from other central and eastern states. Tribal in southern states – Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh face different forms of discrimination.
  • There is no schedule area in any southern states except Andhra Pradesh.
  • PVTGs like Errula tribes face many forms of exploitation in their day-to-day life. They are deprived of natural resources and livelihood.
  • The status and condition of women and girls is more deplorable than tribal men. Some tribal like Irulas, who depend on the sea coast, are increasingly losing their access to the sea and its resources, due to the interference of big trawlers and climate-related challenges like frequent high tides.
  • Hunger, dignity and lack of governance are important issues of tribal in these States.
  • Availability, accessibility and affordability of food and other essentials are very important but not in place.
  • The law and order situation in tribal areas is totally disturbed and out of control.

Steps taken by the Government | Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism

  • Operation Green Hunt: It was started in 2010 and massive deployment of security forces was done in the naxal-affected areas. From 223 districts that were affected due to naxalism in the year 2010, the number has come down to 90 in nine years.
  • Grey Hound Police: The Greyhounds are an elite commando force of Andhra Pradesh, India created to combat left wing extremists. It is considered the best anti Naxalite force in the country, even above the CRPF’s CoBRA which has more men, budget and better arms than the Greyhounds. Greyhound is a simple but effective organization and recruits the best of the best from the Andhra Pradesh Police. The Force is also known for its guerrilla approach and its functioning in the field, which is near similar to that of the Maoists. Greyhound commandos often exclaim that their strength does not lie in them being a special force with special training, but it lies in the fact that it is more of a guerrilla force than a special force. The commandos of Greyhounds undergo rigorous training and have a strict day to day combat regime. They are highly paid, motivated and well-armed.
  • The government even started ‘Relief and Rehabilitation Policy’ for bringing naxalites into mainstream.
  • Aspirational Districts Programme: Launched in 2018, it aims to rapidly transform the districts that have shown relatively lesser progress in key social areas.
  • Salwa Judum: So called People’s movement was named Salwa Judum, to mean, “Peace hunt” in the local Gondi tribal dialect. The movement was launched by a few villagers angered by Naxal interference in the local trade of tendu leaves (used for making bidis). However, later on, it was alleged that maintaining law and order in Dantewada and Bastar was outsourced to the Salwa Judum cadres, some of them as young as 15–16 years in age. Some 5000 such cadres were made Special Police Officer s (SPOs), given a rifle each and paid Rs 1500–2000 a month. Poorly trained, ill equipped and immature, some of the Salwa Judum cadres themselves looted many tribal villages. It resulted in civil war like situation in these regions. Last year, Supreme Court ruled that this movement id unconstitutional and only state has responsibility of maintaining law and order

Constitutional And Legal Safeguards For Tribal Population |  Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism

  • Scheduled Areas
    • The Scheduled Tribes living in contiguous areas. Therefore, an area approach is followed for development activities as well as regulatory provisions to protect their interests.
    • To protect the interests of STs with respect to land and other social issues, various provisions have been enshrined in the Fifth and the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution.
  • Equality before Law (Article 14)
    • The scheduled castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities Act), 1989
    • The act was introduced to prevent the offences of atrocities committed against the members of the scheduled tribes.
    • It provides for the trial of such offences and rehabilitation of victims of such offences.
    • Recently the act was strengthened against a court ruling that provided for prior approval before the arrest of the accused. By the amendment of the act, previous protections were restored.
  • Grants-in-Aid
    • Grants-in-Aid from the Consolidated Fund of India for the welfare of the Scheduled Tribes and administration of Scheduled Areas under Article 275(1)
  • The Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996
    • The Bhuria Committee’s (1991) recommendation brought this act. It safeguards the traditions and customs of the people, and their culture, identity, traditional resources.
    • Under the act, the Gram Sabha or Panchayats at the appropriate level shall be consulted before making the acquisition of the land in scheduled areas rehabilitation of the project affected people in the scheduled areas.
    • But the most important step to protect tribal rights was the passage of The Scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers (recognition of forest rights) act, 2006.
  • Recognition of Forest Rights Act, 2006
    • The act was enacted to recognize and vest the forest rights and occupation in forest land in forest dwelling scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers who have been residing in such forests for generations.
  • The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989
    • This act has been introduced to prevent the commission of offences of atrocities against members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, to provide for the trial of such offences and for the relief of rehabilitation of the victims of such offences and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
  • The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement act, 2013
    • The new act provided for land acquisition as well as rehabilitation and resettlement. It replaced the Land Acquisition Act, 1894.
    • The process for land acquisition involves a Social Impact Assessment survey, preliminary notification stating the intent for acquisition, a declaration of acquisition, and compensation to be given by a certain time. All acquisitions require rehabilitation and resettlement to be provided to the people affected by the acquisition.
    • Compensation for the owners of the acquired land shall be four times the market value in case of rural areas and twice in case of urban areas.
    • The new law stipulates mandatory consent of at least 70 per cent for acquiring land for public-privatepartnership (PPP) projects and 80 per cent for acquiring land for private companies.
    • Purchase of large pieces of land by private companies will require provision of rehabilitation and resettlement.
    • The provisions of this act shall not apply to acquisitions under 16 existing legislations including the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005, the Atomic Energy Act, 1962, the Railways Act, 1989, etc.

What Should Be Done? | Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism

  • Emphasising more on community development, hunam rights, governance, service delivery and social and political greivances
  • Ensuring social security and livelihood security
  • Effective implementation of government schemes and protective legislations
  • Improving infrastusture in the area to push the tribal population towards development
  • Protecting tribal rights
  • Employment generation through tax holidays to investment in infrastructure development in those areas

Internal security

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