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LEADERS OF INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT

LEADERS OF INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT

GOPAL GANESH AGARKAR (1856-1895)

  • He was one of the founders of the Deccan Education Society and the Fergusson College, Pune and also became its Principal in 1892 till his death in 1895.
  • He was the Editor of the English weekly the Mahratta and the Marathi weekly the Kesari.
  • In 1888 he started his own weekly the Sudharak.
  • He battled to raise the age of marriage for boys to 20-22 years and for girls to 15-16 years.

SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE (1897-1945)

  • He appeared for the Indian Civil Service Examination in 1920 and stood fourth in order of merit.
  • He was unanimously elected President of the Haripura session of the Congress in 1938 and was re-elected for the second term at the Tripuri Congress session in 1939, defeating Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya, who had been backed by Mahatma Gandhi.
  • He resigned the presidentship of the Congress in April 1939 and founded the All-India Forward Bloc.
  • In January 1941, he escaped from India and reached Berlin (Germany), from where he arrived in Singapore on July 2, 1943.
  • In Singapore, Rasbehari Bose handed over the command of the Indian Independence Movement in East Asia and the Azad Hind Fauj (the Indian National Army) to Subhas Bose, who became its Supreme Commander on August 25, 1943.
  • In January 1944, the INA headquarters was shifted from Singapore to Rangoon. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands were handed over to him by Japan, which he renamed Shaheed and Swaraj Islands respectively.                                      LEADERS OF INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT
  • Subhas Chandra Bose was reportedly killed in an air crash over Taipei, Taiwan on August 18, 1945.

SARDAR BHAGAT SINGH (1907-1931)

  • He was born in a Jat Sikh peasant family of the Punjab.
  • During his education at the DAV College, Lahore, he came under the influence of two teachers, namely Bhai Parmanand and Jai Chandra Vidyalankar.
  • He graduated from the National College, Lahore founded by Lala Lajpat Rai.
  • In 1923, he joined the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) and was elected its general secretary.
  • On December 18, 1928, to avenge the lathi charge on Lala Lajpat Rai while leading the anti-Simon Commission procession in Lahore, he shot dead Saunders, Asst. Superintendent of Police.
  • On April 8, 1929, he and Batukeshwar Dutt threw a bomb in the Central Assembly in Delhi and offered themselves for arrest.
  • Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev and Rajguru were hanged in the Lahore Central Jail on March 23, 1931.

ANNIE BESANT (1847-1933)

  • An Irish woman, who came to India to work for the Theosophical Society and established her home in Varanasi, where she founded the Central Hindu College in 1889.
  • In 1907, she was elected President of the Theosophical Society.                                      LEADERS OF INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT
  • In 1915, she founded the Home Rule League to launch the Home Rule movement and was made President of the Calcutta session of the Congress in 1917.
  • The same year (1917), she established the Indian Boy Scouts’ Association and also the Indian Women’s Association.

ABUL KALAM AZAD (1888-1958)

  • He was a great scholar of Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Islamic theology.
  • He was elected President of the Congress when only 35, the youngest to hold that office.
  • In 1940, he was elected a second time as the President of the Congress and continued to hold that position until June 1946.
  • After independence and until his death on February 22, 1958, Azad was the Education Minister in Nehru’s cabinet.

CHANDRA SHEKHAR AZAD (1906-1931)

  • He was actively associated with the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army and
    involved in many cases like Kakori Conspiracy Case, Lahore Conspiracy Case.

BANKIM CHANDRA CHATTERJI (1838-1894)

  • He wrote his first novel Durgeshnandini in 1865.
  • He composed his famous patriotic song Bande Mataram some time in 1874, which he later on included in his most famous novel Anandmath.

LALA LAJPAT RAI (1865-1938)

  • He was popularly known as the ‘Punjab Kesari’. In 1907, he organized and led a massive agrarian movement in the Punjab, for which he was deported, along with Ajit Singh, to Burma.
  • In 1920, he presided over the Calcutta session of the Congress.
  • He actively participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement and, after its suspension, joined the Swarajya Party.
  • On October 30, 1928, while leading the anti-Simon Commission procession in Lahore, he was brutally lathi charged and died of the injuries received eighteen days later on Nov. 17, 1928.
  • He was founded an Urdu daily, the Bande Mataram, and an English weekly, The People. Earlier he had published Young India in the USA.
  • In collaboration with Mahatma Hans Raj, he founded the DAV College, Lahore.                                                LEADERS OF INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT
  • He also established the National College, Lahore (of which Sardar Bhagat Singh and Sukh Dev were two illustrious products).

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU (1889-1964)

  • He was Prime Minister of India from 1947 to 1964
  • His works include:
  1. The Discovery of India
  2. Glimpses of World History
  3. A Bunch of Old Letters

MOTILAL NEHRU (1861-1931)

  • He was the father of Jawahar Lal Nehru.
  • He was elected to preside over the Amritsar session of the Congress (December 1919).
  • He and C.R. Das founded the Swarajya Party in January 1923.
  • He was Chairman of the All-Parties Committee appointed to draft the Swaraj constitution for India, which popularly came to be known as the Nehru Report.

SARDAR VALLABHABAI PATEL (1875-1950)

  • In 1918 he participated in the Kheda satyagraha.
  • In 1922, he participated in a peasant movement in Bardoli taluka of Gujarat popularly known as Bardoli Satyagraha.
  • In recognition of his great success in Bardoli Satyagraha, Mahatma Gandhi called him Sardar.
  • After independence Sardar Patel became independent India’s Deputy Prime Minister.
  • His portfolios included Home, the Indian States and Information and Broadcasting.

DADABHAI NAOROJI (1825-1917)

  • He is known as the ‘grand old man of India’.
  • In 1865, he founded the London India Society in collaboration with W.C. Bonnerjee. He was the first Indian to be elected to be its president.
  • He enunciated the ‘Drain Theory’ in his long paper, Poverty and Un-British Rule in India.
  • He was thrice elected as the President of the Congress in 1886, 1893 and 1906.

BAL GANGADHAR TILAK (LOKMANYA) (1856-1920)

  • He started the Marathi Kesari and its English counterpart Mahratta.
  • He revived the Ganapati festival in 1894 and two years later the Shivaji festival (1896).
  • He was one of the founders of the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha.
  • His growing difference with moderates led to the ‘Surat Split’ and finally the expulsion of Tilak from the Congress.
  • Immediately after his expulsion from the Congress, he was arrested, deported to Burma and imprisoned in the Mandalay fort for six years.
  • After his release in 1914, he joined Mrs. Annie Besant and launched the Home Rule Movement in April 1920.
  • He died shortly afterwards in Bombay on 1 August 1920, the day Mahatma Gandhi formally launched the Non-Cooperation Movement.
  • He wrote Gita Rahasya, a commentary on the Bhagavadgita in the Mandalay prison in 1911.

DADABHAI NAOROJI (1825-1917)

  • He is known as the ‘grand old man of India’.
  • In 1865, he founded the London India Society in collaboration with W.C. Bonnerjee. He was the first Indian to be elected to be its president.
  • He enunciated the ‘Drain Theory’ in his long paper, Poverty and Un-British Rule in India.
  • He was thrice elected as the President of the Congress in 1886, 1893 and 1906.

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