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Kyoto Protocol – an Overview

Kyoto Protocol – an Overview

Kyoto Protocol

  • In the third COP held at Kyoto (Japan), Kyoto Protocol was signed. Under Kyoto Protocol, the responsibilities of developed nations and developing nations were differentiated.
  • The differentiation was done because in the past, developed nations have contributed more towards greenhouse gas emissions as compared to the developing nations, due to differences in the level of industrial development.
  • Developed nations were called Annex I countries, while developing nations were called Annex II countries.
  • Annex I countries had the legal responsibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% of 1990 levels by the year 2012.
  • Annex II nations, on the other hand, had been given the moral responsibility to decrease carbon emissions.
  • The Protocol’s first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012.              Kyoto Protocol – an Overview
  • A second commitment period was agreed in 2012, known as the Doha Amendment to the Protocol, in which 37 countries had binding targets.
  • As of July 2016, 66 states have accepted the Doha Amendment, while the Amendment will come into force on the acceptance of 144 states. Of the 37 countries with binding commitments, seven have been ratified.              Kyoto Protocol – an Overview

Details of Kyoto Protocol

  • Annex I countries can achieve reduction of 5.2% of greenhouse gas emissions in the following ways:
  1. Developed countries can reduce domestic emissions.
  2. They can rely on flexible market mechanisms.
  • There are three market-based mechanisms. They are:
  1. Joint Implementation (JI): It allows a country with emission reduction commitments to implement emission reduction project in other developed countries.
  2. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): Under CDM, developed nations can implement emission reduction project in a developing country. The credit for emission reduction is given to the organisation of the developed nation.                                          Kyoto Protocol – an Overview

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