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Jute Industry In India

Jute Industry In India

Introduction  

  • Known as the ‘golden fibre’ jute is one of the longest and most used natural fibre for various textile applications.
  • Jute is an important Kharif crop.
  • Almost 85% of world’s jute cultivation is concentrated in the Ganges Delta.
  • India is the world’s largest producer of raw jute and jute goods, contributing to over 50 percent and 40 percent respectively of global production.
  • The leading world’s jute producing countries are India, Bangladesh, China and Thailand.
  • It thrives in tropical lowland areas with humidity of 60% to 90%. Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides.
  • Retting of Jute is a process in which the tied bundles of jute stalks are immersed in water by which fibres get loosened and separated from the woody stalk.
  • The cultivation of jute in India is mainly confined to the eastern region of the country.
  • The jute crop is grown in  nearly  83  districts  of seven states –  West Bengal ,  Assam ,  Orissa , Bihar , Uttar Pradesh , Tripura and Meghalaya .
  • West Bengal alone accounts for over 50 percent raw jute production.
  • Jute industry is predominantly dependent on Government sector which purchases jute products more than Rs. 5,500 crore every year.
  • To promote and popularize jute diversification work, National Jute Board, Ministry of Textiles, acts as the apex body for promotion of the products in India and abroad.
  • The first jute mill was established at Rishra (Bengal – now in West Bengal), on the river Hooghly near Calcutta in the year 1855, by Mr. George Aclend. In 1959, the first power driven weaving factory was set up.

Background

  • Among several natural fibres, Jute is next to cotton as per availability is concerned. It is second to flax origins in Mediterranean region and later it came to India. Based on the records, jute was known as ‘patta’ in 800 BC. It has been popular for more than a century for its industrial applications mainly as packaging material in different sectors, agricultural and geo-textile application and carpet backing.
  • Since 17th to 20th century, the jute industry in India was delegated by the British East India Company, which was the first jute trader. Palit and Kajaria, 2007 documented several historical events which were evidence for the growth of the jute industry.
  • In 1854, the first jute mill/factory in India was established at Rishira, which is about 20 km north of Calcutta. The jute industry made tremendous progress in the later part of the 19th century. Later during the 19th century, the manufacturing of jute has started in other countries like in France, America, Italy, Austria, Russia, Belgium and Germany. Most of the Jute tycoons had started to quit India, leaving the set up of jute mills during Independence after which the Indian businessmen owned most of the jute mills.
  • In recent days, jute textile industry is one of the major industries catering the eastern part of India, particularly in West Bengal. This industry supports around 40 lakh farm families and provides direct employment to 2.6 lakh industrial workers and 1.4 lakh in the tertiary sector.
  • The production process in the Jute Industry passes through a variety of actions, which begins with the cultivation of raw jute, processing of jute fibres, spinning, weaving, bleaching, dyeing, finishing and marketing of both, the raw jute and its finished products. As such its labour-output ratio is also high in spite of various difficulties being faced by the industry. Capacity utilization of the industry is around 75 per cent. Jute industry contributes to the export earnings in the range of Rs. 1,000 to Rs. 1, 200 crore annually.

Jute cultivation

  • The suitable climate for growing jute is a warm and wet climate.
  • Temperatures ranging from 25-30 °C and relative humidity of 70%–90% are favorable for successful cultivation.
  • Minimum rainfall required for jute cultivation is 1000 mm. It requires 160-200 cm of rainfall weekly with extra needed during the sowing period.
  • Soil type : New grey  alluvial  soil of  good  depth receiving  silt  from  annual  floods is most suitable  for  jute  However, jute is grown widely in sandy looms and clay loams specially river basins.
  • PH range between 4.8-5.8 is best for its cultivation so Jute cultivation in red soils may require high dose of manure.
  • Plain land or gentle slope or low land is ideal for jute cultivation. In India, Ganga delta region is excellent for jute cultivation as this region has fertile alluvium soil and favorable temperature along with sufficient rainfall. This fertile geographic region is shared by both Bangladesh and India (mainly West Bengal).
  • Main jute producing states- The jute crop is grown in nearly 83 districts of seven states – West Bengal , Assam , Orissa , Bihar , Uttar Pradesh , Tripura and Meghalaya . West Bengal alone accounts for over 50 percent raw jute production.
  • Main jute producing countries- The leading world’s jute producing countries are India, Bangladesh, China and Thailand. India is the world’s largest producer of raw jute and jute goods, contributing to over 50 percent and 40 percent respectively of global production.

Government Initiatives for Promoting Jute Industry

  • Jute Corporation of India (JCI) procures raw jute at Minimum Support Price (MSP), fixed on the basis of recommendation of the commission for Agricultural Cost and Prices (CACP), from jute growers to safeguard their interest.
  • Incentive Scheme for Acquisition of Plants and Machinery (ISAPM): Launched in 2013, it aims to facilitate modernization in existing and new jute mills and up- gradation of technology in existing jute mills .
  • Jute-ICARE (Jute: Improved Cultivation and Advanced Retting Exercise): This pilot project launched in 2015 is aimed at addressing the difficulties faced by the jute cultivators by providing them certified seeds at subsidized rates, and by popularizing several newly developed retting technologies under water limiting conditions.
  • The National Jute Board implements various schemes for market development, workers’ welfare and promotion of diversification and exports.
  • In order to boost demand in the jute sector, the Government has also imposed anti-dumping duty on import of jute goods from Bangladesh and Nepal.

Problems of the Jute Textile Industry

  • Shortage of Raw Material: Despite expansion of jute growing area and intensification of its cultivation, India is not self-sufficient in the supply of raw material. To meet the growing need of the industry, raw mate-rial is imported from Bangladesh, Brazil, and Philippines. There is a need of Golden Fibre Revo-lution in the country.
  • International Competition: India is facing a tough competition from Bangladesh, Brazil, Japan, Philippines, and South Korea.
  • Obsolete Machinery: Most of the machinery in jute mills is more than 25 years old. These machinery are outdated and lead to low production
  • Competition from Substitutes: Jute industry is facing a tough competition from synthetic bags.
  • High Prices: The high price of raw material is making the jute products expensive. Consequently, a number of jute mills are becoming sick units.
  • Strikes and Lock-outs: The trade unions frequently go on strike which hamper the routine production of jute goods.
  • Decrease in the Demand of Jute Products: The overall demand of jute products is steadily decreasing in the international market.

Advantages of using Jute fabrics over Polypropylene/Plastic

  • Jute is environment friendly and completely biodegradable, while synthetics possess a number of hazards.
  • Jute bags are indigenously processed products while synthetic bags are manufactured from polyester granules whose manufacture poses a number of hazards.
  • The toxic effects of synthetics are so serious – both the production and disposal aspects of it – that many western countries have banned it for use in packing of food products.
  • Jute bags have porosity, easily withstand the high temperature and are much stronger than poly sacks.   (Jute Industry In India)
  • The obnoxious gases, particles and volatile organic compounds emitted creates pollution and slow poisons the earth during its disposals.
  • Jute bags can be recycled, re-used and can be easily repaired.

National Jute Policy

  • The government of India announced its First National Jute Policy in April 2005 to facilitate the Sector to attain and sustain a pre-eminent global standing in the manufacture and export of Jute products by enabling the Jute Industry to build world class state-of-the-art manufacturing capabilities, and strengthen research and development activities, through public private initiative, and ensure remunerative prices to the farmers.

Jute Technology Mission (JTM)

  • It was approved by the government of India in 2006 and it has 4 mini Missions. The Objectives of the JTM are as follows:
    • Development/extension of raw jute ministry of and transfer of improved technology.
    • To strengthen agricultural research and technology achievements.
    • To modernize, technologically upgrade, improve productivity, textiles diversify and develop human resource for the jute industry.
    • To develop efficient market linkages ministry of for raw jute.

Conclusions and Impending | Jute Industry In India

  • Application of jute area must be increased. India needs to work on quality by adopting new technologies.
  • Jute Research organizations such as ICAR-NINFET, Kolkata, IJIRA, Kolkata, Department of Jute and Fibre Technology, Kolkata, Directorate of Jute Development, National Jute Board, etc.must work together to utilize resources for the betterment of the industry.
  • Government must make efforts in R&D to strengthen the jute industry and implement newer technologies, diversified products and improved machinery through intensive modernization.
  • These will fetch more profit and has less market competition (synthetic counterpart) due to its eco-friendly property which has good prospects in the coming days.

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