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  • Jammu and Kashmir is an integral and inalienable part of India. Basic facts pertaining to this issue are well established.  | Jammu and Kashmir militancy| Internal Security
  • However, there has been a concerted dis-information campaign that presents a distorted historical account of the developments that led to the irrevocable accession of the state of Jammu and Kashmir to Indias the subsequent wars inflicted by Pakistan on India and the unleashing of terrorist violence in the once tranquil and beautiful Kashmir Valley.
  • The involvement of Pakistan in fomenting insurgency and terrorism in various parts of India, especially Jammu & Kashmir, has been well documented and accepted by all impartial observers. Following the cataclysmic events of 9/11 the international community also accepts that there can be no justification for acts of terrorism.
  • Nevertheless, the historical perspective on Jammu and Kashmir needs to be put in the correct, factual light. The following pages attempt to do so.

Jammu and Kashmir – as a princely state of the British Empire

  • Maharaja Gulab Singh of Dogra Dynasty signed the ‘Treaty of Amritsar’ with the British East India Company in 1846.
  • Under this treaty, he paid Rs. 75 lakhs to the East India Company in 1846 in exchange for Kashmir and some other areas. Jammu and Kashmir as a single entity was unified and founded (1846).
  • Zorawar Singh, a General in the Dogra Anny later led many campaigns in the northern areas like Ladakh, Baltistan, Gilgit, Hunza and Yagistan, consolidating smaller principalities. He expanded the dominions of Maharaja Gulab Singh.
    • The 2016–2017 unrest in Kashmir, also known as the Burhan aftermath, refers to a series of violent protests in the Kashmir Valley and subsequently Chenab valley and Poonch district of Jammu division in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It started with the killing of Burhan Wani, a commander of the Kashmir-based Islamic militant organisation Hizbul Mujahideen, by Indian security forces on 8 July 2016. After his killing, anti-Indian protests started in all 10 districts of the Kashmir Valley. Protesters defied curfew with attacks on security forces and public properties.
    • Curfew was imposed in all 10 districts of the valley on 15 July and mobile services were suspended by the government. Kashmir valley remained under 53 days of consecutive curfew which was lifted from all areas on 31 August, however was reimposed in some areas the next day. Jammu and Kashmir Police and Indian paramilitary forces used pellet guns, tear gas shells, rubber bullets, as well as assault rifles, resulting in the deaths of more than 90 civilians, with over 15,000 civilians injured and as the result of pellet guns, many people also were blinded.
      • Externally, ever since 1947, Kashmir remained a major issue of conflict between India and Pakistan (and between India and China to a minor extent).
      • Pakistan has always claimed that Kashmir valley should be part of Pakistan. The conflict resulted in 3 main wars between India and Pakistan – 1947, 1965, and 1971. A war-like situation erupted in 1998 as well (Kargil war).
      • Pakistan was not only the illegal occupant of the Kashmir region. China too started claiming parts of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.
      • By the 1950s, China started to gradually occupy the eastern Kashmir (Aksai Chin). In 1962, India fought a war with China over its encroachments, however, China defeated India. To make matters worse, Pakistan ceded the Trans-Karakoram Tract of Kashmir (Saksham valley) to China.
        • After its humiliating defeat in 1971 war, Pakistan adopted the strategy of proxy war with India by promoting insurgency in Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir.
        • Till 1987, the insurgency in Kashmir was low intensity warfare. In 1987 assembly elections, an eleven party oppositional alliance won only four seats despite its popular support, and a dispute started about rigging in the elections.
        • This dispute had set the stage for birth of insurgency in the Kashmir valley in 1989. Within no time, it was escalated and the armed insurgent groups demanded sovereignty and freedom the Indian state.However, Jammu and Kashmir, from 1846 until 1947, remained a princely state ruled by Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty. Like all other princely states in India then, Kashmir too enjoyed only a partial autonomy, as the real control was with the British.Historical Background
          • On 26th October 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh fled from Srinagar and arrived in Jammu where he signed an ‘Instrument of Accession’ of J&K state.
          • According to the terms of the document, the Indian Jurisdiction would extend to external affairs, communications and defence. After the document was signed, Indian troops were airlifted into the state and fought alongside the Kashmiris.
          • On 5th March, 1948, Maharaja Hari Singh announced the formation of an interim popular government with Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah as the Prime Minister.
          • Subsequently, the Maharaja signed a proclamation making yuvraj Karan Singh as Regent.

          Kashmir Militancy- Low Intensity Was Or Proxy War By ISI | JAMMU AND KASHMIR MILITANCY | INTERNAL SECURITY

        Kashmir Issue – External Disputes

      Kashmir Issue – Internal Disputes

      • Internally, there is a dispute about the status of Kashmir within the Indian union.
      • Kashmir was given autonomy and a special status by article 370 in the Indian Constitution. Articles like 370, 371, 35A etc are connected with privileges given to Jammu and Kashmir.

      Civil Unrest In Kashmir, July 2016

    • Infrastructure: Two new branches of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) will be opened in Jammu and Srinagar. The New Terminal Building of the Kushak Bakula Rinpoche (KBR) Airport at Leh was also inaugurated.
    • Electricity: The 220 KV Single Circuit Srinagar-Alusteng-Drass Kargil-Khaltsi-Leh Transmission was launched which connects Ladakh with the National Grid for assured power supply. The 9 MW Dah Hydroelectric Project in Ladakh was also inaugurated. It was declared that 100 percent of the households in J&K have been electrified under the central government’s Saubhagya Scheme.
    • Education: University of Ladakh, established under the University of Ladakh Act 2018, was launched.
    • Tourism: Several new tourist and trekking routes in the Ladakh region were opened to facilitate more tourist footfall in the area.
      • The validity of the Protected Area Permit has been increased to 15 days in the Ladakh region. Now tourists will be able to enjoy their journey in Ladakh for a longer time.
      • Pollution Abatement Project on rivers Devika and Tawi launched under the National River Conservation Plan (NRCP).Factors which have fuelled unrest in the region in recent times:
        • Use of social media for false rumours to instigate youth to lead violent mobs
        • Stone strafing on security forces by radicalised and incited youth
        • Militants using cover of “agitating mobs” firing at security forces and lobbing grenades, provoking security forces to retaliate
        • Armed militants mixing with stone-pelting mobs and addressing rallies
        • Smacks/threats on government officers, poliical representatives and policemen
        • The challenge of radicalization of youth.
        • No identifiable leadership of protests.

        Special Status To Jammu And Kashmir

        • Article 370 gives greater autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir compared to the other States of India.
        • The State has its own Constitution.
        • All provisions of the Indian Constitution are not applicable to the State.
        • Laws passed by the Parliament apply to J&K only if the State agrees.
        • Non-Kashmiri Indians cannot buy property in Kashmir.

        Kashmir Separatists

        • All Parties Hurriyat Conference
        • Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front
        • Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami
        • Lashkar-e-Taiba
        • Jaish-e-Mohammed
        • Hizbul Mujahideen
        • Harkat-ul-Mujahideen
        • Al-Badr
        • Ansar Ghazwat-ul-Hind (Since 2017)

        Separatist’s demands

        • Separatist politics which surfaced in Kashmir from 1989 has taken different forms and is made up of various strands.
        • There is one strand of separatists who want a separate Kashmiri nation, independent of India and Pakistan.
        • Then there are groups that want Kashmir to merge with Pakistan.
        • Besides these, there is a third strand which wants greater autonomy for the people of the state within the Indian union.

        Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019

        • After the Government of India repealed the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 of the Indian constitution in 2019, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, which contained provisions that dissolved the state and reorganised it into two union territories – Jammu and Kashmir in the west and Ladakh in the east.
        • The two union territories came into existence on 31 October 2019, which was celebrated as National Unity Day.
        • The union territory of Jammu and Kashmir was proposed to have a legislature under the bill whereas the union territory of Ladakh is proposed to not have one.


        Government Of India’s Development-Oriented Programmes In Kashmir | JAMMU AND KASHMIR MILITANCY | INTERNAL SECURITY


    Military response against insurgency in Kashmir

    • Indian army’s Northern Command is prime responsible for tackling terrorism and insurgency in Kashmir.
    • Operations of the Army, police, and the paramilitary forces in the region are coordinated by a Unified Headquarters.
    • The Paramilitary forces include the Border Security Force, Central Reserve Police Force and Special Forces.
    • The Rashtriya Rifles (RR) is a specially organized force to deal specifically with counter insurgency.
    • The main aspect of Indian approach to counterinsurgency operations in Kashmir is to stop the infiltration of insurgents from launch pads and training camps in Pakistan across the LOC and the between gaps in the International Border.
    • To plug the major infiltration routes, India fenced the LOC. The retired Army soldiers from the local villages have been organized into Village Defence Committees.
    • India is continuously following up the modernization of its army with new equipment and training. Intelligence agencies have been organized to provide real-time information.


Internal security

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