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  • Security, like peace, identity and other terminologies in that fold of international political theory has attracted many definitions. Unfortunately, many contributors approach these concepts from their own ideologies. Hence, broad areas of description of the term “security” exist.
  • If defining security is that elusive, there is little wonder why operating within its coverage is so fluid. In the name of security, people and governments have taken actions where intended and unintended outcomes have become difficult to handle.
  • National Security is a state or condition where a nation’s most cherished values and beliefs, its way of life, its institutions of governance and its unity, welfare, and well-being as a Nation and people are permanently protected and continuously enhanced.

What is  Internal Security?

  • It is the security of the country from internal actors as well as foreign actors, within its boundaries
  • It falls under the purview of Ministry of Home Affairs
  • Its maintenance is the sole responsibility of the State police, supported by Central police forces and armed forces.
  • Internal troubles are often a result of aggrieved Indian citizens because of an inequitable development process.
  • Police efforts for internal security maintenance may lead to issues of human rights violence as it often involves a war against our own people.
  • Fighting from internal forces require an unconventional set of skills of warfare.

What is External Security?

  • It is the security of the country from aggression by a foreign country.
  • It falls under the purview of Ministry of Defence
  • Its maintenance is the sole responsibility of the armed forces.
  • External troubles are often a result of boundary disputes or economic competition between two countries.
  • Human rights issues are generally neglected while fighting a war against foreign country.
  • Fighting from external forces involves conventional warfare skills.

Major Challenges To Internal Security

  • Naxalism:Among the internal security perils afflicting India, an alarmingly burgeoning is LWE commonly dubbed as the Naxal-Maoist threat.
  • Insurgency:Insurgency in Northeast India involves multiple armed factions among which some favor a separate state while others seek regional autonomy. Some groups demand complete independence.
    • neighbors Myanmar, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
    • Uneven economic development and unfulfilled aspirations of the people:The unjust distribution of economic development and development benefits has driven affected groups to assert themselves and the main target is government, both local and central.
    • J&K Conflict:The conflict in J&K has provided ingression to foreign extremist in the country. The people in the state and the minority community at large have been alienated by the Indian State due to the violent and less developed situation in J&K.
    • Information Technology (IT) War:The modern day IT has revolutionized warfare and provided means to the underworld to expand their reach for criminal activities without direct physical involvement.
    • Punjab Terrorism:Punjab terrorism was the outcome of political ineptness and drew its strength and legitimacy not from any ideology or religious sanction but from the failures of political institutions, governance and administration. It, along with increased narcotic trade, still has the capacity to subvert the peace of the region.
    • The Pakistan Factor to Internal Security:Over the years, Pakistan has supported state sponsored terrorism to create unrest in India. Pakistan has established bases in Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Middle East- the plan aims at encirclement of India. This combined with the upsurge in Islamic Terrorism at the global level with its epicenter in Central Asian Republic, Afghanistan and Pakistan is likely to have persistent affect on India’s internal
    • Insurgencies in North East:North-East is an extremely heterogeneous region with high level of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious diversity. The region has witnessed violence due to various reasons ranging from secession to autonomy, movements against foreigners and immigrants, ethnic integration and looking back to their roots as a reaction to perceived imposition of Indianness.Terrorism:Pathankot attack that took place on 31st December 2015, the attack of 26/11 on the Taj hotel, Indian parliament attack in 2001 etc are the grim reminders how fatal the menace of terrorism can be.
      • Communalism and Growing Regional Assertiveness:The growth of religious polarization, increasing incidents of mob violence as recently seen in Uttar Pradesh where policemen is killed and enhanced violence in various regions in the name of reservation, agricultural distress etc. pose a significant internal security challenge to India in the longer run.
      • Separatist movements:Separatist feelings in some states of India, notably Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Assam and in Naxal-Maoist afflicted regions are major threat to unity and integrity of India.
      • Cyber driven crimes:With cybercrimes opening up as a new battlefront, India needs to fortify its information networks against malware.
      • Illegal Migration: In 2000, India with its net migration being 6.3 million persons ranked the sixth among the top ten countries in the world with largest international migrant population.
        Identity threat for local population, demographic changes, recruitment of migrants by anti-state actors etc are some of the security issue posed by migrants
      • Drug trafficking:This two-way illegal movement of narcotics and drugs pose a significant threat to the national security as the breach of international borders indicate that arms smuggling and infiltration is equally feasible along with terror financing by the money generated by the illegal sale of narcotics and drugs.

      Factors Responsible For Internal Security Problems

      • Trans-border impact of Social Tensions:South Asia consists of numerous ethnic, religious and linguistic groups which often indulge in violent clashes among themselves. Such violence is transnational in nature and impacts the internal security situation across the border. Traditional linkages of friendship and inter- action amongst people have become competing arrangements for aiding and abetting subversion, terrorism and insurgencies.
      • Mutual Distrust among South Asian Nations:The consolidation of South Asian nations into their new identities had resulted into mutual distrust in their relations. Tensions between pluralist democratic governments and unitary form of non-pluralist governments in the sub continent further add to the imbalances and tensions.
      • Left Wing Extremism: The uneven development pattern coupled with rising poverty and unemployment had prevailed in the interior regions of the country. This has created a very dangerous situation of Maoism/ Naxalism/Left Wing Extremism. In 2006, the then PM even regarded it as the biggest security threat to the nation.
      • Peculiar position with respect to drugs trade:Two of the three major narcotic centres of the world, the Golden Crescent in the North West and the Golden Triangle in the East have made India vulnerable to drug trafficking.
      • Trans-Border Migration from Bangladesh:It is a major factor for the problems in Assam and other areas of the North East. Their transgression into land matters and provision of cheap labour by them is a cause of social and economic insecurity for local communities and a cause of tension and violence.
      • Failure to integrate diverse sections of Indian society:Indian democratic state has had various failures in welding the various sections of society together. This has created conflict situation to the point of violence; and issues of ethno-nationalism and identity are an outcome of this failure only.
      • Diverse Socio-Political Milieu of India:The domestic dynamic of India’s Internal Security is reflected in its socio-political milieu consisting of variety of communities, castes, ethnicities, religion, languages, customs and traditions, all operating in a dynamic environment.
      • Vote Bank Politics to manipulate emotional sensitivities:Various political parties have manipulated the emotional sensitivities of different communities in order to gain their vote bank. This has created communal tensions and led to radicalization of individuals.

      The China Factor to Internal Security: The Chinese are believed to have resorted to giving financial aid, arms and sanctuaries to Naga, Mizo and Meitei extremists in the North Eastern states. China is also trying for a strategic containment of India by forming regional alliances and arming India’s

    National Security Doctrine (NSD)

    • The National Security Doctrine means the stated principle of government policy in different aspects on national security, like terrorist attack, armed insurgency, and military. The document would guide the government on security matters at both strategic and operational level. It would guide the government on how to react to different security problems.

    Significance of NSD

    A National Security doctrine will play a crucial role in internal security in the following ways:

    • It would help in maintaining the proper co-ordination among security establishments at both Central and State level, and avoid terror attacks which occurred even when intelligence agencies have inputs but due to lack of co-ordination fail to prevent the attacks.
    • This would help in prompt and relevant decision making as the decisions will be guided by national security strategy enshrined in the doctrine.This would result in consistent security response at the time of insurgences.
    • Moreover, prompt and successful handling of such attacks would ensure peace, progress and development in the country.
    • This would also make the security establishments more accountable in case of any failure to combat the terror attack.

    Advantages of NSD

    • National Security Doctrine would enable government to address the crucial issue of coordination required to formulate and address new security challenges such as terror attacks that have arisen
    • It makes a State’s actions predictable. This is useful for reassuring neighbours, including adversaries.
    • It provides guidance to all stakeholders on policies related to national security. It helps in identification of the military, economic, diplomatic resources needed to meet the challenges.
    • It helps to protect and promote national interests pertaining to security and dissuades adversaries from attempting to play mischief.
      • It offers reassurance to the citizens that the government has initiated appropriate protective measures to safeguard national security.

      External Threats To India

      • Two neighbours of India—China and Pakistan—are not just the principal source of its external security threats, but are also nuclear-armed states who share a deep friendship.
      • The territorial disputes and external threats on our sub-continent are a result of its unique geostrategic location, its neighbourhood, its history and the Partition.
      • Security of India’s long and porous coastline, offshore islands, exclusive economic Zone and sea lines of communications in the Indian Ocean require a high level of surveillance, situational awareness, rapid response capability, and synergy between all enforcement agencies to provide effective maritime security.
      • Detailed examination of the economic and security implications of CPEC (China Pakistan Economic Corridor), Belt and Road Initiative  (BRI),  and the 21st-century Maritime silk road on India and the region is required.

Internal security

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