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Internal Security Challenges in India, are no more local in nature and has inter­state and nation-wide ramifications. ‘Internal security’ is an important aspect of National Security.

The National Security has three main objectives —

  • Safeguarding territorial integrity,
  • Preserving sovereignty and
  • Maintaining domestic peace.
  • Former Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh defined the largest challenges facing India at the beginning of 2010 — “Terrorism, Naxalism, Communalism, Corruption and Regionalism”, which can also be attributed as the various internal threats haunting the country.
  • India is experiencing internal security problems due to insurgency movements, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism.
  • In the Arthashastra, Kautilya wrote that a state could be at risk from four types of threats – internal, external, externally-aided internal and internally-aided external.
  • He advised that of these four types, internal threats should be taken care of immediately, which are far more serious than external threats. The most dangerous enemy is the enemy within.
  • India since independence is facing numerous problems of internal security.


We can categorise India’s Internal Security in following categories

Problems of Nation Building — India’s Multiethnic, multicultural fabric has been adversely affected by the problem of unequal development, caste tensions and ethnic violence. This has raised the questions on the process of Nation Building with the development of equal society, as enshrined in the Constitution.

Ethnic Conflicts/ Fundamentalism

Problems of Disputes, Governance and Management— Under this category we can include the following problems:

  • Jammu & Kashmir Problem —
  • Insurgency in North-East

   Problems of Ideological Differences –

  • Naxalism
  • Terrorism

In the realm of Internal Security, globalization has led to new threats, risks and a blurring distinction between external and internal threats.

Extreme uncertainty and instability, consequently, afflict all aspects of South Asia’s enveloping geopolitical context. The principal elements that compound regional destabilization include:

  1. Rising challenges to state power, the progressive weakening of governments, and widening spheres of non-governance and disorder.
  2. The restructuring of the global geopolitical architecture.
  3. The release of a variety of violent nationalist and sub-nationalist movements across Asia and Eastern Europe.
  4. An increasing polarization between “globalizing powers” and those that are, or perceive themselves as being, marginalized by globalization—stresses that are further aggravated by the inequalities and inequities that characterize contemporary globalization processes.
  5. The resurgence of radical political ideologies of mass mobilization, including religious— particularly but not exclusively Islamist—extremism, ethnic fundamentalisms, and Maoism, across wide regions.
  6. The emergence of “new ways of warfare”—specifically terrorism and sub-conventional wars— and their adoption by both non-state actors and a number of state entities to secure political goals.
  7. The proliferation of technological force multipliers and sophisticated weapons and explosives among non-state groups, facilitated by irresponsible, predatory, and rogue states.
  8. Widening areas of escalating environmental, economic, resource, and social stresses.


  • At the national level, Central Government is charged with the maintenance of internal security and the responsibility of protecting states from “external aggression and internal disturbances” under Article 355 of the Constitution of India.
  • The Union Government has the constitutional authority to seize control of a state under certain circumstances of a breakdown in public order (Articles 257, 258, 365, and 356), and a national emergency can also be declared under Article 352, if “a grave emergency exists whereby the security of India or of any part of the territory thereof is threatened, whether by war or external aggression or armed rebellion.”
  • Responsibility for maintenance of “public order” and “police,” under List II of the constitution (the State List), is, however, vested in the various state governments.
  • The lack of sustained investment in and the neglect of the transforming role of the police within a modernizing state system has enormously compromised the capacities, efficiency, and effectiveness of state police organizations.
  • Constant political interference and a subordination of legal mandate to partisan political objectives has undermined the ability of the police to deal effectively with internal security problems—a reality that was dramatically demonstrated in the rolling debacle of responses to the Mumbai attacks of November 2008.
  • The infirmity of the states’ internal security apparatuses has resulted in a constant clamour for central assistance and the “paramilitary panacea” the deployment of increasing numbers of Central Paramilitary Forces (CPMF) in local disorders across the country.
  • Recently, the Prime Minister Narendra Modi addressed a conclave where he talked about vital aspects for a nation’s security. More than having advantage of good weaponry, it depends who has those weapons, but even more important than having weaponry and trained manpower handling those weaponry, is having the best intelligence network; as the success of any nation’s security depends on it.
  • The system that has the best form of intelligence will never require either the weapon holder or weaponry and there definitely won’t be any need of use of weapons. If there is any unit that holds utmost importance in terms of nation’s security, it is the intelligence system.

A new concept was floated by the PM – that of SMART police – a SMART police force. By SMART police what was meant was police should be Strict yet Sensitive, M –Modern and there should be Mobility, there should be no stagnancy, A – Alert and Accountable, R – Reliable and Responsive, T – Techno savvy and Trained.

We have to take these five points and march ahead and we can fill the police force with a new life and a renewed sense of consciousness. INDIA’S INTERNAL SECURITY CHALLENGES



Internal security

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