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INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANIZATION (ISRO)

INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANIZATION (ISRO)

  • ISRO is the primary body for space research under the control of Government of India and one of the big six advanced space research organization that dominate space, others being NASA (U.S), RICA (Russia), CNSA (China), ESA (Europe) and JAXA (Japan).
  • It was established in its modern form in 1969. It is located in Bangalore. ISRO’s chief executive is a chairman, who is also chairman of the Indian government’s Space Commission and the secretary of the Department of Space.
  • ISRO’s first satellite, Aryabhata, was launched by the Soviet Union in 1975. Rohini, the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle (Satellite Launch Vehicle 3) was launched in 1980.
  • The prime objective of ISRO is to develop space technology and its application to various national tasks. India’s economic progress has made its space program more visible and active as the country aims for greater self-reliance in space technology.
  • ISRO has successfully operationalized two major satellite systems namely Indian National Satellites (INSAT) for communication services and Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites for management of natural resources; also, Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching IRS type of satellites and Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for launching INSAT type of satellites.

It has following important regional centres:

SPACE APPLICATION CENTRE (SAC) [INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANIZATION (ISRO)]

  • SAC is ISRO’s R&D centre located at Ahmadabad. It deals with the various aspects of practical use of space technology.
  • Among the fields of research at the SAC are geodesy, satellite based telecommunications, surveying, remote sensing, meteorology, environment monitoring etc.
  • It works towards finding beneficial applications of space technology in the Indian context and operationalising them.

ISRO SATELLITE CENTRE (ISAC)

  • It is located at Bangalore and responsible for the design, fabrication, testing and management of application satellites.
  • The venue of eight successful spacecraft projects is also one of the main satellite technology bases of ISRO. The facility serves as a venue for implementing indigenous spacecraft in India.
  • This centre has successfully designed and fabricated satellites like Aryabhata, Bhaskara, APPLE, and the IRS and INSAT series of satellites.

SATISH DHAWAN SPACE CENTRE (SDSC)

  • It is located at Sriharikota, A P. It was earlier known as Sriharikota High Altitude Range (SHAR) Centre. With multiple sub-sites the Sriharikota island facility acts as a launching site for India’s satellites.
  • The Sriharikota facility is also the main launch base for India’s sounding rockets.
  • The centre is also home to India’s largest Solid Propellant Space Booster Plant (SPROB) and houses the Static Test and Evaluation Complex (STEX).

VIKRAM SARABHAI SPACE CENTRE (VSSC)

  • It is located at Thumba, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. The largest base of ISRO is also the main technical centre and the venue of development of satellite launch vehicles like SLV-3, ASLV, PSLV and GSLV series.
  • The centre had its beginnings as the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) in 1962. It was renamed in honour of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, the father of the Indian space program.
  • In January 2007, the Space Capsule Recovery Experiment Module (SRE-1) was safely brought back to earth after 10 days in orbit. It made significant contribution to India’s maiden mission to the Moon, Chandrayaan-1.
  • VSSC R&D efforts have included solid propellant formulations. Another focus area has been navigation systems; the ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (HSU) established at Vattiyoorkavu is a part of VSCC.
  • VSSC is involved in the development of air-breathing vehicles. A reusable launch vehicle technology demonstrator is under development, which will be tested soon.
  • VSSC also has programs focused on applications of space technology including village resource centres, telemedicine, tele-education, disaster management support and outreach through Direct To Home television broadcast. INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANIZATION (ISRO)

NATIONAL NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (NNRMS)

  • NNRMS is located at Bangalore and works under the administrative control of the department of space.
  • It integrates the data from various remote sensing satellites with conventional data for effective management of country’s natural resources.
  • For example regular monitoring and estimation of crop acreage, yield etc. of various crops, monitoring of forest resources etc.

NATIONAL REMOTE SENSING CENTRE (NRSC)

  • It is located at Hyderabad. It is an autonomous body under the administration of DOS.
  • It is the nodal agency for reception, archival, processing and dissemination of remote sensing data in the country.
  • It also has training facilities at Dehradun in form of the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing.

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF REMOTE SENSING (IIRS)

  • It is located at Dehradun. IIRS under National Remote Sensing Centre, Department of Space is a premier training and educational institute set up for developing trained professional in the field of Remote Sensing, Geo-informatics and GPS Technology for Natural Resources, Environmental and Disaster Management.

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (IIST)

  • It is located at Thiruvananthapuram. The institute offers undergraduate and graduate courses in Aerospace engineering, Avionics and Physical Sciences.
  • The students of first batch of IIST were inducted into different ISRO centres by end of July 2011.

DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATIONAL COMMUNICATION UNIT (DECU)

  • It is located at Ahmedabad. The centre works for education, research, and training, mainly in conjunction with the INSAT program.
  • The main activities carried out at DECU include GRAMSAT and EDUSAT projects. The Training and Development Communication Channel (TDCC) also falls under the operational control of the DECU.

LIQUID PROPULSION SYSTEMS CENTRE (LPSC)

  • The Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) located at three places, Valiyamala, near Nedumangad in Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, Mahendragiri in Thirunelveli District of Tamil Nadu and Bengaluru. It is a research centre under ISRO.
  • It is engaged in development of liquid and cryogenic propulsion stages for launch vehicles and auxiliary propulsion systems for both launch vehicles and satellites.
  • The LPSC has developed indigenous cryogenic upper stage for GSLV which was successfully test fired by ISRO on August 4, 2007. INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANIZATION (ISRO)

INDIAN DEEP SPACE NETWORK (IDSN)

  • IDSN is located at Bangalore. This network receives, processes, archives and distributes the spacecraft health data and payload data in real time.
  • It can track and monitor satellites up to very large distances, even beyond the Moon.

ISRO TELEMETRY, TRACKING AND COMMAND NETWORK (ISTRAC)

  • It is located at Bangalore and has a number of ground stations throughout India at Sriharikota, Thiruvananthpuram, Lucknow, Car Nicobar etc and all over the world in Port Louis (Mauritius), Bearslake (Russia), Biak (Indonesia) and Brunei.
  • This centre provides Software development, ground operations, Tracking, Telemetry and Command (TIC) support for the launch vehicles and satellite missions.

ISRO INERTIAL SYSTEMS UNIT (HSU)

  • It is located at Thiruvananthpuram. It is responsible for carrying out R&D towards inertial sensors and systems and allied satellite elements for various missions.
  • It developed the navigation system for PSLV.

MASTER CONTROL FACILITY (MCF)

  • It is located at Hassan, Karnataka. It is a multi-mission control centre charged with the responsibility of control and operation of INSAT and GSAT group satellites in orbit.
  • Besides that, Geostationary satellite orbit raising, payload testing and in-orbit operations are performed at this facility.
  • The MCF has earth stations and Satellite Control Centre (SCC) for controlling satellites and continuous monitoring of search rescue signals, VHRR and DCP downlinks. A second MCF-like facility named ‘MCF-B’ is being constructed at Bhopal.

REGIONAL REMOTE SENSING SERVICE CENTRES (RRSSC)

  • The five operational RRSSCs at Bangalore, Dehradun, Jodhpur, Kharagpur, and Nagpur are engaged in the execution of various national level projects and technology and software development projects.

LABORATORY FOR ELECTRO-OPTICS SYSTEMS (LEOS)

  • It is located at Peenya Industrial Estate, Bangalore. The Unit of ISRO responsible for the development of altitude sensors for all satellites.
  • The high precision optics for all cameras and payloads in all ISRO satellites including Chandrayaan-1 are developed at this laboratory. INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANIZATION (ISRO)

ANTRIX CORPORATION LIMITED

  • The Antrix Corporation Limited, located at Antariksh Complex in Bangalore, is the apex marketing agency in the Department of Space, having access to the resources of Space industry.
  • Antrix markets sub-systems and components for satellites, fabricates satellites to user specifications, provides launch services and tracking facilities, and also undertakes training of manpower and software development.

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