IN VITRO FERTILIZATION (IVF)
IN VITRO FERTILIZATION (IVF):
In Vitro Fertilization involves collection of healthy ovum and sperms from healthy mother and father respectively and their fusion under appropriate conditions in vitro. If fertilization occurs, the resulting embryo is transferred in to the woman’s uterus, where it will implant in the lining of the uterus and develop.
BASIC TECHNIQUE IN IVF
- First of all ovaries are stimulated by using fertility drugs to produce several mature eggs rather than a single egg.
- Then ultrasound probe is inserted through vagina and mature follicles are identified,
- Then a needle is guided through the vagina into the follicles.
- The eggs are removed from the follicles through the needle by a suction device.
- At last, in the laboratory, the sperms are separated from the seminal plasma, and the motile sperms are placed together with each retrieved egg in a separate dish containing IVF culture medium, where fertilization occurs.
- The embryos are drawn into a tube and deposited in the uterine cavity.
EMBRYO TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY
- Embryo transfer is a procedure by which fertilized egg or young embryo is transferred from donor mother to recipient mother or from test tube (IVF) to the recipient mother.
- The best stage for transfer is 2-4 cell stage. Embryo transfer technology is used for rapid multiplication of genetically superior genotype.
- Cloning is the production of identical animals, plants or microorganisms from a single individual. A clone means exact copy or copies of a single parent. Clones, owing to their identical genetic make up exhibit little, if any genetic variation.
- Monozygotic identical twins are clones. “Dolly”, the sheep, was a clone. Dolly was produced from a single cell from her mother. She had exactly the same genetic characteristics as her mother, the single parent. IN VITRO FERTILIZATION (IVF)
- Cloning of animals has been based on a technique known as “nuclear transfer”. The nucleus of the egg cell (containing the DNA) is removed in a test tube, and the nucleus from the organism to be “cloned” is inserted in its place (nuclear transfer). It is then implanted in the uterus to grow like other embryos.
- The uses of cloning are wide, such as infertile couples may choose this method to reproduce and embryonic stem cells can be grown to produce organs or tissues to repair or replace damaged ones.
- Artificial wombs technique could be used to help premature or “sick” human babies to survive and help foetuses in the final stages of multiple pregnancies when the womb becomes so cramped.
- In this technique a foetus of about 17 weeks is placed in a tank filled with liquid to stimulate amniotic fluid. The temperature is kept at constant. A machine pumps nutrients and oxygen into the baby’s blood. IN VITRO FERTILIZATION (IVF)
- This technique was successfully experienced on goat foetus in Japan.
- Artificial insemination is the artificial introduction of semen into the reproductive tract of a female.
- Semen collected from a male with desirable hereditary characters can be frozen and transported through long distances to fertilize females.
- The method is used for those females who wish to conceive when normal conception is not possible.
GAMETE INTRA-FALLOPIAN TRANSFER (GIFT)
- GIFT begins with ovulation induction as in IVF followed by egg retrieval, insemination and gamete transfer.
- Sperms and eggs are mixed and injected into the fallopian tubes. The fertilization takes place there as it does naturally.
- An embryo may be carried by the egg donor (Surrogate) or by another woman (gestational carrier).
- In the latter case, the eggs are removed from the infertile woman, fertilized using IVF, and the resulting embryo is placed into the gestational carrier’s uterus.