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Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

  1. Honesty: Honesty refers to a facet of moral character and connotes positive and virtuous attributes such as integrity, truthfulness, straight forwardness, including straight forwardness of conduct, along with the absence of lying, cheating, theft, etc. Furthermore, honesty means being trustworthy, loyal, fair, and sincere. Honesty is a great virtue which is adored all over the world. It is rare to find a truly honest man. A man is born with the quality of honesty, and then, it depends how he is brought up by his parents. An honest man becomes morally strong. He keeps his head high in the society. His character is like a sharp sword made of stainless steel.
  2. Instrumental Value: Instrumental values can be defined as the specific methods of behavior. Instrumental values are not an end goal, but rather provide the means by which an end goal is accomplished. Character traits and personal characteristics, such as being imaginative and independent, make up most of the instrumental values. Rokeach developed a list of 18 instrumental values.
  3. Intrinsic Value: The intrinsic value of something is said to be the value that that thing has “in itself,” or “for its own sake,” or “as such,” or “in its own right.” The notion of intrinsic value has been interpreted in different ways. First, something has intrinsic value if it has value in itself and not on account of being valued on the basis of any interest or desire. According to the second, something has intrinsic value if its value is ‘unconditioned, not dependent upon anything else being the case, including what-ever may be brought about by whatever is intrinsically valuable. In another view, something has intrinsic value if it is desired for its own sake and not for the sake of anything else. It has value as an end in itself, even though it may be conditioned in the respect that it has value because it is desired. Mill understood pleasure to have value in this way. In his view, pleasure is valued as an end and only as an end; for that reason it is ‘being good’ as an end. However, its being good as an end is dependent upon its being the ultimate object of desire. This notion of intrinsic value is much the same as the notion of something having value as an end and not as a means. Kant’s conception of the value of the good will seems to include both of the first two kinds of value. The value of the good will is not in any respect dependent upon its being valued as an object of desire or the satisfaction of an inclination. Nor is its value dependent upon anything else being the case. Aristotle’s conception of eudaimonia (happiness or flourishing); it has value as an end and only as an end, and it is desired for its own sake.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

  1. Impartiality: Impartiality ensures equality without any bias and prejudices. Non partisanship requires neutral political approach and commitment to the government in power.Impartiality require carrying out responsibilities in a way that is just and fair. Civil servants should not act in a way that unjustifiably favours or discriminates a particular individual or interest. Civil servants must perform and may be perceived to perform, their duties in an impartial manner to establish an egalitarian society. The political neutrality and political impartiality are one of the most important values, a civil servant should imbibe, which ensure trust of the politicians in the bureaucratic systems enabling continuity of various schemes, policies and programmes.
  2. Integrity: Integrity refers to “honesty” or “trustworthiness” in the discharge of official duties, serving as an antithesis to “corruption” or “the abuse of office. At the individual level, integrity is more than ethics; it is all about the character of the individual. It is those characteristics of an individual that are consistently considerate, compassionate, transparent, honest, and ethical. The characteristic of trust is closely associated with integrity. At the organizational level, integrity refers to the culture, policies, and leadership philosophy. A culture of integrity has to start at the top and be seen in the conduct and activities of the executives. The development of shared values improves the work environment and productivity. It strengthens personal effectiveness, corporate loyalty, and ethical behavior. It fosters teamwork, corporate pride and consensus. At the state level, integrity refers to trust of citizens on government and bureaucracy. Citizens expect public servants to serve the public interest with fairness and to manage public resources properly on a daily basis. Fair and reliable public services and predictable decision-making inspire public trust and create a level playing field for businesses, thus contributing to well-functioning markets and economic growth. Integrity is the prerequisite to good governance. Corruption and maladministration are not only individual acts but also the results of systemic failure and indication of “weak governance’ and lack of integrity at the state level.
  3. Inventiveness: It is the introduction of new things, ideas and ways. The act of innovation can generate many emotions. It can bring agony, sweat, tears and exhaustion. But it can also bring great thrills, satisfaction and joy. Innovation is needed in civil services at various stages. It makes the civil services generate new ideas and thoughts which can then be put into action for social development and they can be trained through various innovative programmes to improve their skills. Innovation helps the civil servant to improve his performance and overall performance of the team. Every scheme of the government is a beautiful example of innovative exercise to bring positive change.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

  1. Inquisitiveness: It is the name given to inquiry, research, or asking questions; eager for knowledge; intellectual curiousness. An inquisitive mind is curious to explore new things and learn new things with course of time. Inquisitiveness will take you far, and in unimagined directions. One gets different answers from different interlocutors, and may find that one question leads one down to a totally different path than the one had expected.
  2. Justice: Justice concerns some of the most basic rights and obligations and, in general, is a central issue in the relations between persons in both the moral and political contexts. While the diversity of accounts of justice is quite considerable, two of the main concerns of justice are (a) the distribution of benefits and burdens in a society, and why and how wrongdoers are to be punished. The former is the issue of distributive justice and the latter is the issue of retributive justice.Justice is a crucial concern with regard to laws, institutional arrangements, actions and practices.A paradigmatic example of its importance is Plato’s treatment of it, which involved theorising about the soul, the organisation and rule of the state, and fundamental questions about what is good for its own sake and what makes a life a good life in contrast to simply being one that happens to be enjoyed.
  3. Kindness: Kindness means that we recognize that others are fragile—that we have the power to hurt or heal them—and we choose to be healers. When we are kind, we don’t take advantage of our power or of other people’s vulnerabilities. Instead, we seek to comfort, encourage and strengthen those around us. To be kind requires empathy; we must consciously attune ourselves to the life experience of another being to know what will be good for them. Kindness builds confidence, because it lets us see others in all of their complicated, needy humanity, rather than putting them on pedestals. Kindness does not ask whether it will be repaid. Even so, our kindness often ripples through the world around us; it invites others to be kind in turn.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

  1. Knowledge: Knowledge simply refers to the condition of knowing something. It is the information, facts, principles, skills and understanding, etc. that is acquired through education and experience. Knowledge is, roughly, useful information. It is information that’s adapted to a purpose. It is good explanations, and it is solutions to problems people had. Knowledge shouldn’t be expected to be perfect. A partial solution is still knowledge, even if it contains some mistakes, and can be improved on in the future.Knowledge is created by imaginative and critical thought. The key ingredients are both creativity and criticism. We need numerous ideas, including ones that aren’t obvious. And we need error correction to get rid of flaws. With those two components, we can improve our knowledge and learn new things.Knowledge is powerful and important part of Life. Knowledge is a powerful acquisition in life which, when given to someone, does not decrease. Our knowledge is the collective thought and experience of our forefathers, wise men who left behind a rich heritage and wealth of information. It is knowledge that has equipped man with the limitless power with which man dominates over all beings who are physically much stronger than him. Knowledge has significantly helped him to conquer the nature and this conquest has prompted human progress and civilization.
  2. Leadership: Leadership can be hard to define and it means different things to different people. Leadership may be defined as a position of power held by an individual in a group, which provides him with an opportunity to exercise interpersonal influence on the group members for mobilising and directing their efforts towards certain goals. The leader is at the centre of group’s power structure, keeps the group together, infuses life into it, moves it towards its goals and maintains its momentum.In the transformational leadership model, leaders set direction and help themselves and others to do the right thing to move forward. To do this they create an inspiring vision, and then motivate and inspire others to reach that vision.
  3. Liberty: Liberty, in philosophy, involves free will as contrasted with determinism. In politics, liberty consists of the social and political freedoms enjoyed by all citizens. Generally, liberty seems to be distinct from freedom in that freedom concerns itself primarily, if not exclusively, with the ability to do as one wills and what one has the power to do; whereas liberty also takes into account the rights of all involved. As such, liberty can be thought of as freedom limited by rights, and therefore cannot be abused Liberty implies the following things.
    • Liberty does not mean the absence of all restraints.
    • Liberty means the absence of unjust and tyrannical restrictions.
    • Liberty means legal, moral and reasonable restrictions on the functions of the individuals.
    • Liberty is an essential condition for the development of individual personality.
    • It means the rights of the individual to do things which are not harmful to others.
    • Liberty is to be provided to every individual equally by the state without discrimination.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

  1. Loyalty: It is being faithful to one’s duty without looking for personal benefits. The foundational values of loyalty requires civil servants to serve the government loyally, regardless of the party in power. In developing and implementing policies and schemes, civil servants, should put the will of the government over and above their personal likes and dislikes.Loyalty to the government includes serving the organization with good faith and fidelity and not to do anything which cause harm to the organization. It also includes an obligation not to act in a manner detrimental to the reputation of the government. Loyalty includes ensuring public confidence and trust in the integrity, objectivity and impartiality of the government.
  2. Love: This can be taken as a basic category of general human value which relates to concern and respect for others and the environment. The word ‘love’ is here used in a broader sense than in common parlance where personal and/or erotic love is the common interpretation. Its essence can be characterized by the words “Love is unselfish care and concern for the well-being of others and the world at large. The less selfish it is, the more it enriches life”. Being neither a sensation, an emotion nor a mere conception, but being identifiable only at the heart or core of the human consciousness, love in this universal sense is the characteristic par excellence of the human soul or psyche. It is common to include altruism, understanding and forgiveness under the more encompassing (but vague and ambiguous) word ‘love’.
  3. Modesty: It is the quality or state of being unassuming in the estimation of one’s abilities.It also refers to the quality of being relatively moderate, limited, or small in amount, rate, or level.Modesty means feeling or appearing to feel humbly about oneself. A modest man does not boast of his own merits or achievements. He rather feels shy, if anyone praises him in his presence. He shows his regard for conventional decencies in dress or behaviour. Modesty is one of the finest qualities of man and is akin to politeness. A man may have many good qualities, but if he is not modest, he cannot command respect, and even his good qualities are overlooked. Humble are the wise. They do not pretend to say that they know what they do not know. They listen to the big and the small with equal attention, and try to learn from others, by giving equal prominence to everyone. So a modest person is loved by all. A modest person does not try to show his wisdom unless he is asked to do so. He possesses a noble heart. His outlook about life is broad. He is generous in his behaviour and simple by nature. Sweetness of his character attracts those who come near him. He is the storehouse of positive energy in life. He does not envy his neighbours or enemies; he becomes happy to see others prosper in life.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

  1. Motivation: Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain behavior. It represents the reasons for people’s actions, desires, and needs. Motivation can also be defined as one’s direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior and vice versa. A motive is what prompts the person to act in a certain way, or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the: (1) intensity of desire or need, (2) incentive or reward value of the goal, and (3) expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way and striving for goals.
  2. Natural law: Natural law theory is a legal theory that recognizes law and morality as deeply connected, if not one and the same. Morality relates to what is right and wrong and what is good and bad. Natural law theorists believe that human laws are defined by morality, and not by an authority figure, like a king or a government. Therefore, we humans are guided by our human nature to figure out what the laws are, and to act in conformity with those laws. The term ‘natural law’ is derived from the belief that human morality comes from nature. Everything in nature has a purpose, including humans. Our purpose, according to natural law theorists, is to live a good, happy life. Therefore, actions that work against that purpose – that is, actions that would prevent a fellow human from living a good, happy life – are considered ‘unnatural’, or ‘immoral’. Laws have a purpose too: to provide justice. From a natural law perspective, a law that doesn’t provide justice (an unjust law) is considered ‘not a law at all.’ Therefore, a law that is flawed is one that no one should follow. In short, any law that is good is moral, and any moral law is good. Legal positivism is a legal theory that is the opposite of the natural law theory. Legal positivists believe that a law can be deeply flawed, and yet still be considered a law.
  3. Natural rights: A natural right is a right that is not conferred upon a person and cannot be withdrawn or taken away though, of course, it can be violated. Early modern theorists such as Hobbes, Locke and Grotius are key figures in theorizing on this matter. They held that prior to the establishment of legitimate political authority individuals have certain rights just as rational agents with concern for their security and property. For example, even in the state of nature an agent has the right of retribution; the right to punish another for being harmed. There may be some natural rights one should be willing to surrender in entering into a social contract; Hobbes certainly held this view. The civil condition provides institutions and procedures for just administration that are lacking in the state of nature. Whether a theorist holds that natural rights are fully carried in to the civil state or that some are rationally surrendered in it, the conception of natural rights is central to a great deal of modern thought concerning the ground and permissible character and scope of political authority.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)  

  1. Objectivity: Objectivity is the propensity to base decisions and perceptions on exterior information instead of on subjective aspects, like private emotions, beliefs, and experiences.To maintain objectivity Civil servants should be impartial, open-minded, guided by evidence, and willing to hear different viewpoints. They should be ready to acknowledge and correct mistakes. Civil servants should be loyal to the government of the day and be politically neutral in their day-today functions.
  2. Pluralism: Civil servants should comply with the guidelines which have been laid down on political activities in General Orders or any other official document. One version of pluralism maintains that there is more than one basic moral value or ground of value, and that the different values are irreducible. For example, the grounds for autonomy being a moral value differ from the grounds for mutual benefit being a value. Autonomy and mutual benefit might always be relevant as moral considerations, but not in a way that is exhaustively specified either a priori or empirically. Another version of pluralism holds that there is no single, objectively best kind of life, but many good kinds of life. This type of pluralism bears directly on political theory and the question of the appropriate role of the state with respect to conceptions of good, and whether any in particular are to be favoured or encouraged.
  3. Patience: Patience is allowing time to run its course and allowing people, including ourselves, to work and grow at our own pace. Patience moves our minds away from frustrations, expectations and aligns us with reality. When we are patient, our energy is positive which can be invested in good things.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

  1. Pragmatism: Pragmatism means accepting what’s real and making the best of it. Pragmatism is figuring out how to fulfill our values and mission in the real world rather than spending our energy complaining that things should be different. When we are pragmatic, we accept the status quo, even if we don’t like it. We explore the cause and effect relationships that govern our lives, and then use the power we have to make things better.
  2. Passion: Passion let oneself to engage deeply in things that matter deeply. When one is passionate, he has more energy for our pursuits. Passion heightens our awareness and mental acuity. We become more physically adept. Passion feels risky because it exposes us to possible ridicule, rejection, or failure, but it also fills us with excitement and hope. Passion often is contagious, which makes it a great leadership quality. The passion is echoed in the hope and energy we stir around us.
  3. Persistence: It is the quality of continuing to try to achieve a particular aim despite difficulties. Two of the greatest obstacles for people to overcome in life are failure and fatigue. It gets people through both hardship and drudgery. Some time the reason people don’t persevere is because the lenses through which they view life are focused on failing, not succeeding. Some people get caught up or lost in their yesterdays.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

  1. Practical wisdom: Practical wisdom is a true characteristic that is bound up with action, accompanied by reason, and concerned with things good and bad for a human being.Practical wisdom is not concerned with the universals alone, but must also be acquainted with the particulars: it is bound up with action, and action concerns the particulars.Practical wisdom is concerned with human things and with those that about which it is possible to deliberate. According to Socrates and his student, Plato, achieving sophia gave a man a general understanding of the nature of virtue. And once a man reached an understanding of each of the virtues, he would naturally live them. For example, if a man understood the true nature of justice, he would naturally be just. Thus for Socrates and Plato, becoming a man of virtue was an exercise in abstract thought.
  2. Preference-utilitarianism: This is a variant of utilitarianism according to which actions are evaluated on the basis of how many preferences (weighted to indicate their importance) are satisfied. According to this view, all of a person’s ends, interests and values can be translated into the idiom of preferences, and using the criterion of preference-satisfaction is intended to avoid the difficulties of measuring happiness and making interpersonal comparisons of it.
  3. Regret: Regret is important in moral theorising because of how it is related to self-determination, voluntariness, fortune, and moral self-knowledge. There are many things that we regret even though we had no role in them. We regret that the tornado ruined the orchard, or that the heavy traffic made us arrive late. But there is also regret that we often feel with respect to situations in which we were agents, though what is bad or awful about them was not directly traceable to our agency or intentions.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)  

  1. Respect: Respect means continuous acceptance of talent and personality in other human being. Respect is most important universal human value. When we treat other people with respect, we help them gain confidence and reveal inner potential that otherwise. Respect might go untapped. Respect in private relationship means to take feelings, thoughts, needs, and preferences of others into account. It also means acknowledging and valuing everyone’s thoughts, feelings and contributions to the family as a whole. Respect is indeed earned.
  2. Rights: “Rights in fact are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek in general to be himself at his best. Rights are divided as: Natural Rights: Natural rights those which are enjoyed by man by his birth from nature. The society and the state recognize and respect natural rights. The existence of the natural right theory (Hobbes, Lockes and Rousseau) reveals that man alone conceded some rights to the civil society. Man enjoy the natural rights without reference to the society and state. Right to life is one of the most important of all rights which is necessary for his survival. The declaration of American Independence was based on the theory of natural rights. Moral Rights: These rights are morally given to mean in a civil society. The ethical principles in the society are the basis for the moral rights. Moral rights do not have the support or protection from laws in the state, but these rights are supported by society and any violation results in punishment by it. If the state fails to recognize moral rights consolidated in society, the people may rebel against it. Such rebellions may take the form of revolution. Legal Rights: Legal rights are those recognized by the state and protected by the law. The courts of law protect the rights provided by state without being disturbed either by government or individuals or other associations. Legal rights are equally applicable to all sections of society without any discrimination on the basis of the caste, religion and race. Legal Rights are of two types – Civil rights and Political rights.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)    

  1. Rule-utilitarianism: This version of utilitarianism holds that in determining what is to be done, we should be guided by our understanding of which rules and practices have the best record of maximizing utility when followed. The view contrasts with act-utilitarianism. The rule-utilitarian argues that there is greater utility in following rules than in examining individual acts as the basis for ascertaining what to do, even if doing so may sometimes lead to individual actions that do not maximize utility. The rule utilitarian concedes that there may be some cases in which dishonesty would bring the most utility, but overall – and taking into account the utility involved in trying to figure out what to do – there is a decisive case for honesty. Thus, we should encourage the habit of honesty as a completely general approach to communication and representation. What we need to justify are general rules or practices, and then individual acts will be justified or not, given how they stand with respect to the rules and practices. The rule-utilitarian will claim to be true to utilitarianism because of the purported overall utility of relying on rules in certain ways.
  2. Resilience: Resilience is the ability to work with adversity in such a way that one comes through it unharmed or even better for the experience. Resilience means facing life’s difficulties with courage and patience – refusing to give up. It is the quality of character that allows a person or group of people rebound from misfortune, hardships and traumas.Resilience is rooted in a tenacity of spirit—a determination to embrace all that makes life worth living even in the face of overwhelming odds. When we have a clear sense of identity and purpose, we are more resilient, because we can hold fast to our vision of a better future. Much of our resilience comes from community—from the relationships that allow us to lean on each other for support when we need it.
  3. Responsibility: It is the bundle of obligation associated with a job or function.When life does not go our way or we inadvertently make a mistake, it is so easy to make excuses, place blame on others, or argue that circumstances were against us. But one can only progress in life to the extent that we take responsibility for our actions and attitudes, and put forth the initiative necessary to create our own circumstances.Civil servants are expected to be responsible for their duties. The successful people are not expected to play the blame game when problems arise, they are expected to accept responsibility. It is regretted that some of the civil servants take full credit for success and blame others for failures. Our willingness to take responsibility and to exhibit initiative depends on our thoughts and attitudes.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

  1. Reliability: Reliability means being on time, following through one’s commitment, and being dependable. Reliability is the trust that a particular individual can be depended on based on the past experiences or on the basis of trust he has earned.Being reliable, honest, loyal, and having integrity will boost ones morale, while making him appear a person of high quality. The civil servants must be reliable and consistent in fulfilling their duty.
  2. Sacrifice: Sacrifice is being willing to give up something good for something better. Life is full of boundless possibilities, but in order to transform a possibility into a reality we have to choose — sacrificing the many in order to attain the one. Nothing is gained without something relinquished. Sacrifice has meaning only in the context of a goal, dream or mission. In pursuing these, we often face obstacles which require us to forfeit physical or emotional comfort in the service of something that matters more. Often, the greater the dream or vision, the greater the shared sacrifice required to attain it. Sacrifice is easier when we stay focused on what we are choosing rather than what we are giving up.
  3. Self-discipline: Self discipline means deliberately aligning our energy with our values and priorities. Through mental practice, we focus on a task before us and lets other temptations and distractions pass us by. Self-discipline asks that we endure frustration, disappointment, and pain in the service of a higher goal. It means being willing to push ourselves to the limits of our will and endurance if that is what is needed for success. Self-discipline need not be harsh; it can take the form of a quiet resolve or determination that then directs our choices. It is exacting, but is rarely served by our being self-critical or self-denigrating. Self-discipline allows us to make use of whatever power and capabilities have been given us, to be all that we can in the service of our dreams.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

  1. Simplicity: It means keeping ourselves focussed on the essential core rather than getting lost in a cluster of distractions and embellishments. Civil servants, who have to deal with people belonging to downtrodden and marginalized should be simple in their language, expression and behaviour. Only then, they can relate themselves to the extreme sections of society and perform their duty efficiently.
  2. Truth: Truth is adhering to the facts as they are known without any cheating or manipulation.It is necessary part of both public and private relations. Abiding by truth leads to the development of trust in a relationship. Truthfulness is one of the most important duties that we owe to our fellow-men. Falsehood does much to render the gift of language useless and to sow suspicion and mistrust broadcast over the world. If falsehood were universal, we could never rely on any statement made to us. So the relevance of truthfulness becomes much more important. It must be adhered to in any circumstances. While working as a servant for the public, the person must make sure that he does his duty truly without any falsehood.
  3. Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism states that in general the ethical rightness or wrongness of an action is directly related to the utility of that action. Utility is more specifically defined as “a measure of the goodness or badness of the consequences of an action, Utility will be considered to be the tendency to produce happiness.”

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

  1. Unity: Unity is the state of being in agreement and working together. Mahatma Gandhi suggested that one of the greatest challenges of our day is finding unity in diversity. Unity implies oneness. But oneness does not necessarily imply alikeness. In other words, we may all be different unique individuals but through unity of purpose we can team together to accomplish great tasks-tasks where the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Unity is sought on sports team, in work units, in government and essentially in all group based endeavors. Perhaps nowhere unity is exhibited more strongly than in close families where harmony prevails. This is particularly so on occasions when the family needs to bound their talents to overcome an obstacle or a special need. Finding unity among diversity is one of the civilization’s greatest challenges, yet working together is essential to the well-being of the whole. Coming together is a beginning, keeping together is progress, working together is success. Our chances for every day greatness increase when we surround ourselves with a team and network of other strong individuals. Diversity of talent and thought adds flavour to life and opens the way for teamwork and synergy. In civil services, unity is essential. Work is accomplished through team efforts for which unity is essential. Decision making is a plural exercise where views of every team member is very important.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

  1. Vision: Vision is the ability to see people and situations clearly, not only for what they are but for what they can become. Vision offers a clear image of a possible future, one worth striving for. When we apply vision to people, we prioritize kindness and acceptance while encouraging growth.Vision shapes our lives by providing guiding purpose. It structures our priorities and activities. It inspires us and gives us hope. It helps us to define who we are and who we want to be.Vision is one of the defining qualities of leadership; a leader calls people together communicates a vision, and inspires them to pursue it.When we practice vision, we place trust in our dreams and ideas while utilizing the insight and knowledge of our experience. When a group of people come together around a clear vision, things that seem impossible become real.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

  1. Virtue: A virtue is a ‘habitual and firm disposition to do the good’. A virtue is an excellent state of character or intellect. A virtue enables a person to engage in good or well-ordered activity, either intellectual or practical. For Kant, virtue is explicated in terms of how it reflects good will – morally sound volition. For Mill, virtue is explicated as a habit of desire in accord with which an agent is disposed to act in ways that promote utility. For theorists such as Plato and Aristotle virtue is a central element of moral theory, and the virtuous agent is the measure of good action. The cardinal virtues are wisdom, courage, temperance and justice.
  2. Zeal: Zeal is great energy or enthusiasm in pursuit of a cause or an objective. It also refers to the fervor or the tireless devotion for a person, or ideal or determination in its furtherance. It is diligent enthusiasm or powerful interest.Zeal can be for doing some particular act or for achieving something great in life or for some ambition. The public servants must possess this attribute in order to have the inner enthusiasm to try new innovative ideas. It is important for having inner sense of motivation.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3) 

ETHICS LECTURES

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