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Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Act-utilitarianism: This is a version of utilitarianism according to which the decisive moral considerations are those that indicate, what individual act in the specific circumstances is likely to produce the greatest happiness or utility. Individual acts, rather than general rules and principles, are the proper objects of moral concern and justification. Defenders of act-utilitarianism argue that basing moral decision on other grounds for example, the overall utility of people acting on the basis of general rules is at odds with the basic commitments of utilitarianism. This is because doing so would permit actions that are known not to maximize utility
  2. Agent-neutral Considerations: These are moral considerations that have weight without regard to the ends, concerns and commitments of particular individuals and their own judgment of the significance of those ends. Agent-neutral considerations can be expressed in terms that are universal and impartial.
  3. Cognitivism: The cognitivist holds that moral knowledge is possible, and that the grounds for moral judgments are objective. Cognitivists think that moral sentences are apt for truth or falsity, and that the state of mind of accepting a moral judgment is typically one of belief. Moral statements are not to be interpreted only as expressing attitudes, conventions or personal endorsements. Moral claims are true or false by virtue of objective moral considerations. There is room for argument over whether they are true or not, and whether if true, they admit of exceptions.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Commensurable: In ethics, two values (or norms, reasons, or goods) are incommensurable when they do not share a common standard of measurement. In recent decades there has been considerable debate over the question of whether values arc commensurable. That is, can the values of different things be ordered by a single, common measure? Is the value of autonomy commensurable with the value of well-being? Is the value of friendship commensurable with the value of justice? And so forth. While much of the discussion of the issue concerns different sources of value, the issue can arise even when the values in question are of the same type, as in hedonic utilitarianism. For example, is one person’s happiness commensurable with another person’s? The issue of commensurability bears on fundamental questions concerning moral deliberation and the justification of moral decisions. It also bears on whether there are situations of unavoidable moral tragedy in the sense that even the most strongly justified course of action involves disvalue with which we must reconcile ourselves. Perhaps not all values are jointly realizable, and in some cases, there may be significant moral costs
  2. Conscience: There are several different interpretations of conscience. Among them are the following: (a) conscience as a faculty of moral cognition – A faculty that enables us to ascertain what is morally right and what is morally wrong (Butler); (b) conscience as a mode of developed sensibility such that we feel-painful regret and remorse when we act contrary to it (Mill); (c) conscience as an internal judge of the moral worth of our ends and motives. Conscience does not determine what we are to do, but it can judge whether we have acted in a morally worthy manner (Kant); (d) conscience as faculty of practical reason by which we deliberate with a view to deciding on particular actions to perform, in aiming at conformity with moral principles. Conscience specifies particular actions in the overall project of aiming at what we take to be good. This allows scope for the possibility that an agent could be conscientious but have wrong values (Aquinas); (e) conscience as a reflective consideration guiding employment of criteria of moral soundness with a view to ascertaining which actions meet those criteria (Smith). Some of the main issues regarding conscience are: Whether acting in accord with conscience renders one blameless, even if what one does is wrong; whether it is morally worse to act contrary to conscience and be a hypocrite, or to act wrongly though conscientiously; whether conscience is a faculty that is part of our nature or is acquired; what the conditions are in which it is appropriate to disobey the law and legal authority when what they require is contrary to conscience; by what tests we can determine whether conscience is a proper guide to action and moral self-evaluation.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Contract Theory: It states that we should arrive at basic moral principles by ascertaining what rational agreement would converge upon, rather than appealing to principles independent of what agents would accept through a project of formulation rather than discovery. Contract theory highlights the fact that individuals who have different desires, interests and concerns nonetheless share certain fundamental interests and concerns. Those are the basis for fashioning a fair moral or political order, an order in which the basic rules and principles do not favour or disfavour anyone simply on account of what those rules and principles are
  2. Deontology: This is one of the main approaches with regard to the structure of moral theory and its conception of the locus of moral value. In a deontological theory, duties (and correlatively, rights) are fundamental, in contrast to, say, consequences, intended outcomes, or the character of the agent. None of those is the central consideration for a deontologist. Virtue may still be regarded as important. For example, Kant took it to be quite important, but virtue will be explicated in terms the agent’s acting dutifully, in that the agent is virtuous on account of a steady determination to do what duty requires
  3. Divine Command Theory: Divine command theory (also known as theological voluntarism) is a meta-ethical theory which proposes that an action’s status as morally good is equivalent to whether it is commanded by God. The theory asserts that what is moral is determined by what God commands, and that for a person to be moral is to follow his commands. Followers of both monotheistic and polytheistic religions in ancient and modern times have often accepted the importance of God’s commands in establishing morality.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Double effect Principle: According to this principle, at least some actions that have both good and bad effects are permissible. They are permissible as long as the bad effects, though foreseeable, are not intended, and the good that is achieved is not achieved as a result of the bad effects. (The action that aims at a good end is not in itself a wrong action.) In war, for example, it is morally required that we (a) Try not to harm civilians, and (b) Not try to harm civilians. However, we may see that a certain attack, for which there is justification, will (undoubtedly but unintentionally) harm civilians. Killing civilians is not the means of defeating the enemy we are justified in attacking, in the cases in which we are justified in using deadly force. The issue of proportionality is also relevant. An action with potentially very significant foreseeable effects may not be justified if say, in the conduct of a military campaign, its tactical benefits are minor. However, attacking a target in such a way that civilian casualties can be foreseen may not be wrong in itself if it is justifiable as ‘a crucial element in a morally valid attack on an unjust aggressor. The principle has been the focus of considerable controversy – both with respect to its formulation and with respect to its justification especially in the context of the destruction of a foetus as part of a medical procedure, euthanasia, and other medical ethical issues
  2. Desire: Desire is a sense of longing or hoping for a person, object, or outcome. When a person desires something or someone, their sense of longing is excited by the enjoyment or the thought of the item or person, and they want to take actions to obtain their goal. This is known as the desire for a particular goal or ambition. The individual feel motivated towards the goal.The process of desiring is a one-way tension within the individual, an apparent reaching out towards the desired object or person. Sometimes, desire is impeded by social conventions, class, or cultural barriers. It is necessary to overcome these barriers or constraints to reach the goal.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Determination: Determination is a positive emotional feeling that involves persevering towards a difficult goal in spite of obstacles. Determination occurs prior to goal attainment and serves to motivate behavior that will help achieve one’s goal. It is not just a cognitive state but also an affective state. It is considered as a positive emotion that pushes individuals towards action and results in important outcomes such as perseverance and the development of coping mechanisms. It is an important attribute of a person in work to work harder and strive for the goals and aims of life. For civil services, determination is very important as it enables the civil servants to perform their duties with more dedication and perseverance. It is the determination that enables a person to put continuous efforts even after failure. It denotes the quality of being resolute or firmness of purpose. It can be acquired through repeated efforts.
  2. Devotion: Devotion can be said to be love, loyalty, or enthusiasm for a person or activity. It can be to a particular cause or to achieve something. When devotion is there the person will take utmost efforts to act towards the cause. It comes from sustained efforts and reflects the earnest attachment to a cause, person, etc.Devotion is an important characteristic an individual must possess. It results in persistent efforts even when there are failures. It comes from within when there is a desire and determination to do something. Civil servants in order to perform their duty for the welfare of the society must be devoted to their work. If they seek an attachment to their goals, it will ultimately push them to work harder
  3. Dexterity: It is the skill in performing tasks, especially with the hands. It is the ability that a person possesses which enables him to perform a particular task. This ability can be manual or acquired. However, it is the practice which leads to refining of the particular skill.Even civil servants must possess this attribute so that they can be more efficient in their functioning. They can then perform the work themselves without depending on anyone.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Dignity: Dignity is the state or quality of being worthy of honour or respect. It is individual respect. Dignity expresses the idea that a being has an innate right to be valued, respected, and to receive ethical treatment. Every human being has the basic right of respect both of himself and by his fellow man. Every person has the right to freedom and to express his moral beliefs through words and actions that will help him grow as he uses his talents to help others. People have the right to be free of fear. They have the right to find peace in the understanding and acceptance of who they are, but only to the extent that their rights do not intrude on the rights and beliefs of others. Each person’s rights end where the dignity of others begins. Giving respect to others ultimately fetches respect for oneself. It is not only possessing strong morals that help society to prosper and improve, but following through on them.
  2. Discretion: Discretion is the quality of behaving or speaking in such a way as to avoid causing offence or revealing confidential information. It also denotes the freedom to decide what should be done in a particular situation. Discretion involves power relationships and the ways that people work out these relationships in an ongoing political system. Sometimes, there are times when the individual must exercise this power. He has to choose between varieties of options. This quality must be used in an impartial manner so that no one is favoured and everyone gets an equal opportunity.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Diversity: It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. These can be along. the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. It is one that recognizes that people with different backgrounds, skills, attitudes and experiences bring fresh ideas and perceptions. Diverse organizations encourage and harness these differences to make their services relevant and approachable. Diverse organizations draw upon the widest possible range of views and experiences so it can listen to and meet the changing needs of its users. The encouragement of diversity benefits society. It can be developed by:
    • Treating all fairly.
    • Creating an inclusive culture for all.
    • Ensuring equal access to opportunities to enable people to fully participate in the learning process.
    • Enabling all to develop to their full potential
  2. Dominance: It is exercising power and influence over others. There are individual who try to be superior to other and dominate the choice or take the decision making choice in their hands. Such people think that they are the ultimate source of authority. However, this specific attribute can be taken in negative sense as well when someone hampers the rights of others. At present the best example can be male dominance in the society where females are looked inferior to males. The males take all authority in their hands however, specific steps need to be taken to bring everybody on an equal platform
  3. Duty: Duty is a term that conveys a sense of moral commitment or obligation to someone or something. Fulfilling one’s duty towards his job is very important as when duty is performed efficiently and effectively all other qualities ultimately progress themselves such as honesty, integrity etc. The prime responsibility of civil services executives to society is to serve the government it has elected. It denotes that civil services must offer same standard of free, frank, impartial and responsive advice, and the same level of professionalism in administration and delivery of services, policies, programs irrespective of political party in power. So, this quality becomes much more important.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Dynamism: The quality of being characterized by vigorous activity and progress is called as dynamism. It reflects the continuous efforts of a person. In order to achieve something in life a person should not be disappointed with failures or downs, the efforts must be dynamic. There should be continuity in trying.The civil servants are expected to be dynamic and continuous. They have to perform a wide variety of duties. So, it is necessary that they show dedicated efforts which are not stopped in between due to obstacles
  2. Egoism: Typically, a distinction is made between psychological egoism and ethical egoism. The former is a descriptive theory about how, in fact, people are motivated. It holds that people always and only act with a view to what they take to be their own self-interest. Ethical egoism is a normative theory, a theory about how people ought to act. It holds that agents ought to act only with a view to promoting their own self-interest. That is the fundamental principle of rational action. It is possible to endorse ethical egoism without also believing that psychological egoism is true. In that case, one would hold that agents are often not as self-interested as they rationally should be. If it is rational to act in a way that promotes the interests of others, doing so is rational and justified only if it is a means to promoting one’s own interests.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Emotivism: Emotivism in metaethics view that moral judgments do not function as statements of fact but rather as expressions of the speaker’s or writer’s feelings. This is the view that moral language has emotive meaning but not cognitive meaning. To say ‘Kidnapping and blackmail are wrong’ is to express a stance toward those actions – disapproval – but not to report or describe any objective moral features. We might find the action repugnant, but that is a response to it that we have, it is not a report of a feature of the action itself. If we say, ‘Nearly everyone agrees that kidnapping and black-mail are wrong’, we are reporting a factual matter and we can be literally correct or mistaken. But it is not a moral fact about those actions
  2. Euthanasia: In active euthanasia an agent intervenes to bring about someone’s death in order to prevent the suffering that is making the subject’s life miserable to the point of being unbearable. In passive euthanasia, means that are available to maintain life are either withheld or with-drawn. This leads to the death of the subject, though (as it is often argued) it is the underlying condition that causes death, rather than any person as an agent. In both kinds of cases what is at issue is whether it is morally permissible to take or withhold measures such that the death of the subject is intended (active euthanasia) or the death is foreseen, though not intended (passive euthanasia). If someone is suffering in an unendurable way and has no prospect of recovery or relief from suffering, the question of whether to continue treatment and/or the maintenance of life can look very large. Defenders of passive euthanasia (but not active euthanasia) often argue that if there is sufficient evidence of the subject’s approval, either from the subject himself or from a suitable proxy, of the withholding or withdrawing of treatment, it is morally permissible, and it does not constitute killing (no less, wrongful killing). Utilitarian often argue that objections to euthanasia (active and passive) are irrational impediments to alleviating avoidable suffering. Moreover, if the agent’s consent supplies the assurance that we are doing what the patient most wants, we can be sure that this would not he wrongful killing
  3. Evolutionary Ethics: Evolutionary ethics tries to bridge the gap between philosophy and the natural sciences. Descriptive evolutionary ethics consists of biological approaches to ethics (morality) based on the role of evolution in shaping human psychology and behavior. On the other hand, normative evolutionary ethics may represent a more independent attempt to use evolution, alone or partially, to justify an ethical system
  4. Eagerness: It denotes the enthusiasm to do or to have something. It reflects the keenness of an individual to strive for a goal or aspiration for a particular thing. When someone is keen or ardent in desire or feeling impatiently longing for something it is an expression of eagerness. It is characterized by or revealing great earnestness. The public servants should be eager to try something new in the form of innovative ideas. They when come across a new idea should have the inner aspiration to learn or to explore it. It also reflects the curiosity of a person as curious people are likely to be more eager.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Effectiveness and Efficiency: Effectiveness is the degree to which something is successful in producing a desired result and the degree to which objectives are achieved and the extent to which targeted problems are solved. while Efficient is performing or functioning in the best possible manner with the least waste of time and effort.In contrast to efficiency, effectiveness is determined without reference to costs and, whereas efficiency means “doing the thing right,” effectiveness means “doing the right thing.”
  2. Elation: Elation is great happiness and exhilaration. Elation is more than mere happiness — it is extreme, exhilarating joy. It has a sense of rising or expanding, even to the point of lightheadedness. It is an exhilarating psychological state of pride and optimism or a feeling of joy and pride.It comes when somebody gets something he had been longing from long time. Happiness while denotes the emotion of joy, it is a higher level of happiness
  3. Elegance: It reflects refinement, grace, and beauty in movement, appearance, or manners. Elegance is pursued and appreciated in virtually all aspects of our lives, from fashion to visual and performing arts, from literature to architecture. While most of us praise the elegance and beauty of science when we see it, elegance is typically treated as something that need not concern our research and thus does not belong inside the laboratory.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Enthusiasm: It is strong excitement about something or a strong feeling of active interest in something that one likes or enjoys. It reflects something causing a feeling of excitement and active interest; a hobby that someone feels enthusiastic about.Enthusiasm is the most essential ingredient apart from hard work for attaining success in any initiative. Enthusiasm or passion means throwing ourselves into a relationship, goal, dream, or activity. It means casting aside worries or distractions and embracing instead the delights of the moment or the hope of success. It makes one feel fully alive and is one of the roots of joy. Enthusiasm springs from order in the human consciousness, and this can largely be controlled and guided by the individual
  2. Expediency: Expediency is the quality of being convenient and practical despite possibly being improper or immoral. The means do not matter much in this context. There are some individuals who are smooth and convenient in all aspects of life.Immorality cannot be justified for being flexible and practical.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Expressiveness: Expressiveness may refer to a degree of an expression or a quality of being expressive. It is the ability to say what you want to say like conveying your feelings or some other message. It is an important part of communication process. Impeding expressiveness impedes communication.To be good at communication one has to be expressive. In private or personal relations it plays an important role as the transfer of feelings or messages has to be essential to maintain the continuity in relationships. The public servants who have a wide public interface must be expressive in their thoughts and ideas to be more dutiful so that the chain of communication is maintained
  2. Excellence: Excellence is a talent or quality which is unusually good and so surpasses ordinary standards. It is also used as a standard of performance as measured. Excellence is a continuously moving target that can be pursued through actions of integrity, being frontrunner in terms of products/services provided that are reliable and safe for the intended users, meeting all obligations and continually learning and improving in all spheres to pursue the moving target.Excellence is striving for quality or merit in all that we do. A focus on excellence means we take time, work hard and think carefully about a project or activity. Excellence lets us take pride in our accomplishments. We are guided by a vision or an ideal, and we do our best to make it a reality.Excellence must be tempered by balance, because it doesn’t mean being perfect; it means using our abilities and opportunities to their fullest. A commitment to excellence brings us closer to living it well and to attaining our dreams. Excellence is marked by static quality
  3. Fairness: Fairness is the quality of making judgments that are free from discrimination. It is not expressing any discretion or biasness. It is expressing justice in a transparent manner without favouring a particular side.It is an important attribute as there are times when one has to exercise his power. In such cases, it becomes important that it is done in fair justiciable and a transparent and non-partisan manner. The civil servants must make sure that they are fair and transparent and do not give undue favour to a particular side while taking decisions that are for the welfare of the people. It becomes important in cases where the decision making ability is in the hands of a particular individual while granting projects or during auctioning etc
  4. Faith: Faith is confidence or trust in a person or thing; or the observance of an obligation from loyalty; or fidelity to a person, promise, engagement; or a belief not based on proof; or it may refer to a particular system of religious belief, such as in which faith is confidence based on some degree of warrant. Faith is not confined to the private relationship between two individuals but also is extended to the public workers who have to deal with a large public interface. It is necessary to have a faith in the public servants that are at the service for the people. Faith comes from consistency in behavior. It is important to display consistent behavior at times to make sure that the faith is developed.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)  

  1. Fearlessness: Fearlessness is the capacity to act even while fear might be present. It’s not the absence of the fear but the ability to overcome the paralyzing effects.Under normal circumstances fear is healthy thing, Fear motivate individual to try to understand the world and ourselves and take actions accordingly. Fear is mainly due to ignorance of the reality and true potential of oneself. Of course, there is not one human being that does not have fears, but the difference is how people handle these fears. Some enable these fears to hold them back while the truly great face these fears and shrug that cumbersome weight off their shoulders. There is a plethora of ways to control fear, but the one action to beating this terror is having a goal to look forward to.
  2. Fortitude: It is the Strength of mind that allows one to endure pain or adversity with courage. It refers to displaying courage in pain or adversity and showing mental and emotional strength in facing difficulty, adversity, danger, or temptation courageously. Courage is mental and moral strength to venture, persevere, and withstand danger, fear or difficulty. It is the firmness of mind and will in the face of danger or extreme difficulty. It suggests an ingrained capacity for meeting strain with fortitude and resilience. A person who is mentally and physically strong, is normally found to be courageous
  3. Freedom: Freedom is the power or right to act, speak, or think as one wants. It refers to the state of not being imprisoned or enslaved. The condition of being free of restraints, especially the ability to act without control or interference by another or by circumstance or the state of being free or at liberty rather than in confinement or under physical restraint is known as freedom. However, it must come with responsibility. True freedom which is to be free from all habits, good and bad, doing what you believe you should do to be good, not just acting from an automatic unconscious habit of being good, and because you have the willpower to be good, even in the face of strong temptation. There are good habits and bad habits, but true freedom is release from both. Freedom is defined from different aspects, and according to different cultures, freedom varies from culture to another. Some define freedom as a natural right, the human being is born with. Everyone wants to be free and independent from others. Freedom is the right to do what one wants, live where he wants, eat what he wants, learn what he wants, and choose the religion in which he believes, without ignoring or harming others right.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Friendliness: It is the quality of being friendly; affability. Friendliness is being open toward other people, taking the risk of inviting them into relationship with you. It means being curious, warm and inviting toward people you don’t know well and letting yourself be vulnerable and interdependent with people you do. When we are friendly, our starting assumption is that others are well-intentioned and open to reciprocity, and that we can learn from them. This does not mean we are naively oblivious to the fact that generous assumptions may be wrong and definitely will be at times. Rather, friendliness means that in the absence of evidence to the contrary we assume the best, and even when evidence is mixed we tend to give people the benefit of the doubt. Because our expectations are often self-fulfilling, friendliness maximizes the richness of our relationships
  2. Firmness: Firmness is being resistant to externally applied pressure and is marked by or indicating the tone and resiliency of the person. It is used to denote the quality of showing determination or resolution. Firmness to the goals or objectives in life is very important as the person must not deviate from his set goals in spite of the constraints or the obstacles that come in the way
  3. Fortune: Since antiquity, moral theorists have been concerned with the way in which things we cannot control figure in our lives and in the moral quality of our actions and characters. This was of central concern to Socrates, Aristotle and the Stoics, in large part because of the role they assigned to rational self-mastery in the well-led life. What difference (if any) should be made in our estimation of an agent if he has good luck with regard to both nature and society? If the person has a temperament well suited to acquiring the virtues, and is surrounded by morally sound and concerned agents does that make their virtue less praiseworthy? If we act from worthy motives but things go badly, what sort of criticism of us as agents is appropriate? Much ancient ethical thought raised a question that is still with us: Is it better to be virtuous through a struggle against inclination and bad habits, or is it better to have good luck that eases the acquisition of virtue? Is the relevant notion of ‘better’ a moral notion, or do we mean that it is better (in a nonmoral sense) to have good luck but there is more moral virtue in prevailing against weakness and inclination? The importance of fortune is certainly not confined to antiquity. The issue of fortune, or ‘moral luck’ as it is sometimes called, is motivated by the perplexities and difficulties raised by such considerations. Perhaps we are to strive for virtue, but our ability to do so is influenced by fortune. Perhaps we are to act autonomously, but it may be impossible to make a clean break between rational agency and other elements of our nature.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)   

  1. Generosity: Generosity is expressed as the liberality in giving or willingness to give. It is considered as synonymous to kindness.Generosity is freely sharing what you have with others. It is being willing to offer money, help or time when it is needed. To be generous means giving something that is valuable to you without expectation of reward or return. Many traditions measure generosity not by the size of the gift, but by what it cost the giver.Sometimes generosity requires pushing past a feeling of reluctance because we all instinctively want to keep good things for ourselves. Even so, we can structure our lives in ways that make generosity more spontaneous and fun. When we give, we reap the pleasure of knowing we have made someone else’s life a little happier.Generosity brings balance in the life of the individuals as a result of which they are bound to achieve unimaginable success in their lives. We should understand the fact that though it is a bit difficult to be generous in all the situations in life but at the end generosity bears the fruits of peace, success and happiness in the lives of individuals
  2. Gratitude: It is a feeling of being grateful and wanting to express thanks. Gratitude is a close companion of both integrity and humility. Gratitude without integrity is insincere flattery. Gratitude follows both integrity and humility. Gratitude can be expressed in many ways. It can even come as a small concrete token of thanks.The civil servants should be grateful to their seniors and subordinates for their cooperation. Gratitude is something that shows humanity of a person. Civil servants are helped by many people in order to achieve their work. Hence they should be grateful to all those who have helped them
  3. Happiness: Happiness is a state of well-being and contentment or having a pleasurable or satisfying experience.In some theories (e.g. the utilitarianism of Bentham and Mill) it is interpreted in terms of pleasure on the grounds that pleasure is what we desire for its own sake and only for its own sake. In other theories (such as the eudaimonism of Aristotle) it is interpreted in terms of virtuous activity, and thereby connected to the excellences proper to a being with a rational nature. Aristotle argued that there are excellent activities that are pleasing because they are good, rather than the other way round, and that a life shaped by those activities is a happy life, happiness being the final end at which we aim. A well-led life, a life of excellent activity is a happy life, though pleasure is not the main end of life. Frustration, resentment, anger at our situation can easily be turned into motives for action that take us in morally wrong directions. In order to increase the prospect of engaging in morally worthy action, we should strive to succeed at pursuing happiness.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)    

  1. Humility: It is quality of not thinking that one is better than other people. Though strong self confidence and high self esteem are healthy personality traits, there is a point when they cease to be virtues, the point at which a person feels more important than another, or above reproach and learning. Humility on the other hand, breeds growth and friendship.It is considered as mother of all virtues. Being humble is very essential for civil servants. They can turn arrogant because of power and authority so they are expected to be humble. Civil servants should not think themselves so big that other people look small. They work in a team, so they should willingly give credit to others who have helped them along the way
  2. Harmony: It refers to a relationship in which various components exist together without destroying one another or a relationship characterized by a lack of conflict or by agreement, as of opinion or interest. Harmony is tuning of our lives to those around us and the natural world that sustains our wellbeing. We listen and watch so that we can move in time with that Great Dance in which we all have a small part.To live in harmony requires that we be conscious of the hopes and needs that surround us and flexible in our own course of action. In a harmonious relationship each party at times sets aside his or her own desires to nurture the relationship itself. We can be in harmony with others only when we are in harmony with ourselves living true to our deepest sense of what is real and what matters.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

  1. Helpfulness: In social psychology, the everyday concept of helpfulness is the property of providing useful assistance; or friendliness evidenced by a kindly and helpful disposition. Helpfulness means trying to make life a little easier for other people. If we are paying attention, we notice when someone else is struggling to open a door, to complete a task, or even to go through the dying process with grace and dignity. We move instinctively to ease the struggle, lending ourselves whether for a moment or a lifetime to serve their purpose. If we look around us, we become aware how much of the substance and beauty people are able to create depends on helping hands. Like generosity, helping is a gift that gives to the giver. Sometimes we receive help in turn from those we assisted; even more often our helpfulness ripples through the world as other people spontaneously pay it forward.

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

ETHICS LECTURES

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