Types of Political Parties in India

Relevance:

  • GS Prelims, GS Mains paper II, This topic will also help you during Interview preparation
  • Indian Polity, Political Parties in India

India has three types of political parties

  • National Parties
  • State Recognized Parties
  • Unrecognized Parties

What are the conditions to become a national party in India?

  • Lok Sabha has 543 seats in total out of which a part should at least have 2 per cent of seats from at least three different states in India.

India has seven national political parties:

  • Started in 1980, BJP’s – Bharatiya Janata Party led by Amit Shah.
  • Started in 1885, INC’s – Indian National Congress led by Rahul Gandhi.
  • Started in 1964, CPI-M’s – Communist Party of India (Marxist) led by Sitaram Yechury.
  • Started in 1925, CPI’s – Communist Party of India led by Suravaram Sudhakar Reddy.
  • Started in 1984, BSP’s – Bahujan Samaj Party led by Mayawati Prabhu Das.
  • Started in 1999, NCP’s – Nationalist Congress Party led by Sharad Pawar.
  • Started in 1998, AITC’s – All India Trinamool Congress led by Mamata Banerjee.

What are the conditions to become state recognised parties?

  • A political party should at least win three per cent of the total number of seats in the legislative assembly.

State Recognised parties in India:

  • Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) was started in 2012 in Delhi, Punjab.
  • All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) was started in 1972 in Puducherry, Tamil Nadu.
  • All India Forward Bloc (AIFB) was started in 1939 in West Bengal
  • All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen (AIMIM) was started in 1927 in Telangana
  • All India N.R. Congress (AINRC) was started in 2011 in Puducherry
  • All India United Democratic Front (AIUDF) was started in 2004 in Assam
  • All Jharkhand Students Union (AJSU) was started in 1986 in Jharkhand
  • Asom Gana Parishad (AGP) was started in 1985 in Assam.
  • Biju Janata Dal (BJD) was started in 1997 in Odisha.
  • Bodoland People’s Front (BPF) was started in 1985 in Assam.
  • Desiya Murpokku Dravidar Kazhagam (DMDK) was started in 2005 in Tamil Nadu.
  • Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) was started in 1949 in Puducherry, Tamil Nadu.
  • Haryana Janhit Congress [ HJC(BL)] was started in 2007 in Haryana.
  • Hill State People’s Democratic Party (HSPDP) was started in 1968 in Meghalaya.
  • Indian National Lok Dal (INLD) was started in 1999 in Haryana.
  • Indian Union Muslim League (IUML) was started in 1948 in Kerala.
  • Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) was started in 1932 in Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Jammu & Kashmir National Panthers Party (JKNPP) was started in 1982 in Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Jammu and Kashmir People’s Democratic Party (JKPDP) was started in 1998 in Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Janata Dal (Secular), JD (S), was started in 1999 in Karnataka, Kerala.
  • Janata Dal (United), JD (U), was started in 1999 in Bihar.
  • Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) was started in 1972 in Jharkhand.
  • Jharkhand Vikas Morcha (Prajatantrik), JVM(P), was started in 2006 in Jharkhand.
  • Kerala Congress (M), KC(M), was started in 1979 in Kerala.
  • Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) was started in 2000 in Bihar.
  • Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS) was started in 2006 in Maharashtra.
  • Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party (MGP) was started in 1963 in Goa.
  • Manipur State Congress Party (MSCP) was started in 1997 in Manipur.
  • Mizo National Front (MNF) was started in 1959 in Mizoram.
  • Mizoram People’s Conference (MPC) was started in 1972 in Mizoram.
  • Naga People’s Front (NPF) was started in 2002 in Manipur, Nagaland.
  • National People’s Party (NPP) was started in 2013 in Meghalaya.
  • Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) was started in 1989 in Puducherry, Tamil Nadu.
  • People’s Party of Arunachal (PPA) was started in 1987 in Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) was started in 1997 in Bihar, Jharkhand.
  • Rashtriya Lok Dal (RLD) was started in 1996 in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Rashtriya Lok Samta Party (RLSP) was started in 2013 in Bihar.
  • Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP) was started in 1940 in Kerala, West Bengal.
  • Samajwadi Party (SP) was started in 1992 in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD) was started in 1920 in Punjab.
  • Shiv Sena (SS) was started in 1966 in Maharashtra.
  • Sikkim Democratic Front (SDF) was started in 1993 in Sikkim.
  • Sikkim Krantikari Morcha (SKM) was started in 2013 in Sikkim.
  • Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) was started in 2001 in Telangana.
  • Telugu Desam Party (TDP) was started in 1982 in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana.
  • United Democratic Party (UDP) was started in 1972 in Meghalaya.
  • YSR Congress Party (YSRCP) was started in 2011 in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana.
  • Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya), SJP, was started in 1990 in Uttar Pradesh
  • All India Public Freedom Party (AIPFP) was started in 2016 in Tamil Nadu.

What is an unrecognized party?

  • An Unrecognized Political Party cannot contest an election on its symbol. This party has to choose from the list of ‘free symbols’ issued by the poll panel.
  • There are many unrecognised political parties in India which do not gain much attention in the elections.

 

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