Precision Agriculture

 

Recently

  • G.S. Paper 1,3

Why in news?

  • NITI Aayog has signed Statement of Intent (SoI) with IBM to develop precision agriculture using Artificial Intelligence (AI).

Precision agriculture:

  • Precision agriculture(PA) is also known as satellite farming or site specific crop management (SSCM).
  • It is a farming management concept based on observing, measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops.
  • The goal of precision agriculture research is to define a decision support system (DSS) for whole farm management with the goal of optimizing returns on inputs while preserving resources.
  • The first wave of the precision agricultural revolution will come in the forms of satellite and aerial imagery, weather prediction, variable rate fertilizer application, and crop health indicators.
  • The second wave will aggregate the machine data for even more precise planting, topographical mapping, and soil data.
  • Aims of Precision agriculture are to optimize field-level management with regard to:
    • Crop science: by matching farming practices more closely to crop needs (e.g. Fertilizer inputs)
    • Environmental protection: by reducing environmental risks and footprint of farming (e.g. Limiting leaching of nitrogen)
    • Economics: by boosting competitiveness through more efficient practices (e.g. improved management of fertilizer usage and other inputs)
  • Precision agriculture also provides farmers with a wealth of information to:
    • Build up a record of their farm
    • Improve decision-making
    • Foster greater traceability
    • Enhance marketing of farm products
    • Improve lease arrangements and relationship with landlords
    • Enhance the inherent quality of farm products (e.g. protein level in bread-flour wheat)

Precision agriculture using Artificial intelligence:

  • The practice of precision agriculture has been enabled by the advent of GPS and GNSS or artificial intelligence.
  • The farmer’s and/or researcher’s ability to locate their precise position in a field allows for the creation of maps of the spatial variability of as many variables as can be measured (e.g. crop yield, terrain features/topography, organic matter content, moisture levels, nitrogen levels, pH, EC, Mg, K, and others).
  • Similar data is collected by sensor arrays mounted on GPS-equipped combine harvesters.
  • These arrays consist of real-time sensors that measure everything from chlorophyll levels to plant water status, along with multispectral imagery.
  • This data is used in conjunction with satellite imagery by variable rate technology (VRT) including seeders, sprayers, etc. to optimally distribute resources.

News by date

Browse by month

IAS buzz monthly pdf

Topics