Children, HIV and AIDS: The World in 2030

Relevance:

  • GS Prelims, GS Mains paper I, II, III
  • Social issues, Health, HIV AIDS

Why in News?

  • The report titled ‘Children, HIV and AIDS: The World in 2030’ was released recently
  • Every year, Dec 1 is commemorated as World AIDS day

UNICEF’s vision for an AIDS-free future:

  • The UNICEF vision for an AIDS-free generation entails up-scaling family-centred testing to help identify children living with HIV who have not been diagnosed, and greater use of digital platforms to improve education when it comes to HIV and AIDS contraction and prevention

Global Facts:

  • The report titled ‘Children, HIV and AIDS: The World in 2030’ warned that around 80 adolescents will be dying of AIDS every day globally by 2030 if progress in preventing transmission is not accelerated.
  • Three million children and adolescents are living with HIV, notes the report.
  • However, the report noted that South Asia has made substantial progress in reducing HIV risks and vulnerability among children, adolescents, pregnant women and mothers.
  • An estimated 1,20,000 childrenand adolescents aged 0-19 were living with HIV in India in 2017, the highest number in South Asia, according a report by UNICEF which was released ahead of AIDS Day.

IMPROVEMENTS IN GLOBAL HIV STATISTICS:

  • In 2017, the estimated number of children under 5 years of age newly diagnosed with AIDS was 43 per cent lower than the comparable estimate in 2010 — a decline greater than the 35 per cent recorded globally.
  • The estimated share of those aged 0-14 living with HIV who had been initiated on lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was 73 per cent in 2017, an increase of nearly 50 percentage points from 2010.
  • The report said current trends indicate AIDS-related deaths and new infections are slowing, but the downward trajectory is not happening fast enough.
  • Programmes to treat AIDS and prevent it from spreading among older children are nowhere near where they should be
  • The major shortfalls show slow progress in prevention among the young, and a failure to address the key drivers of the epidemic
  • Many infected children and adolescents are unaware of their illness, and even when tested positive for AIDS, rarely adhere to proper treatment

India Facts:

  • India has highest number of children and adolescents living with HIV in South Asia: UNICEF report
  • In India, over 1 lakh children and adolescents aged 0-19 years were living with AIDS in 2017
  • In Pakistan, this number was 5,800, followed by Nepal (1,600) and Bangladesh (less than 1,000)

Mother-to-child AIDS transmission:

  • The number of mother-to-child infections have fallen by around 40 per cent in the last eight years, but girls still account for two-thirds of all adolescent HIV infections, and rates of infection among older children are the slowest to decline, according to current data.
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