Ocean Acidification


  • Climate Change ( GS3)
  • Threat to marine biodiversity


  • Recent report suggests that New Zealand’s iconic Yellow-eyed penguins may go extinct within the next 25 years due to rising ocean temperatures and climate change.


  • Ocean acidification refers to a reduction in the pH of the ocean over an extended period of time, caused primarily by uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere.
  • For more than 200 years, or since the industrial revolution, the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has increased due to the burning of fossil fuels and land use change.
  • The ocean absorbs about 30 percent of the CO2that is released in the atmosphere, and as levels of atmospheric CO2 increase, so do the levels in the ocean.
When CO2 is absorbed by seawater, a series of chemical reactions occur resulting in the increased concentration of hydrogen ions. This increase causes the seawater to become more acidic and causes carbonate ions to be relatively less abundant.

Carbonate ions are an important building block of structures such as sea shells and coral skeletons.

This process was once believed to be beneficial as it slowed global warming but caused a drop in the pH of the seawater, commonly known as ocean acidification.

Affect of ocean acidification

  • The decreases in carbonate ions can make building and maintaining shells and other calcium carbonate structures difficult for calcifying organisms such as oysters, clams, sea urchins, shallow water corals, deep sea corals, and calcareous plankton.
  • These changes in ocean chemistry can affect the behavior of non-calcifying organisms as well. Certain fish’s ability to detect predators is decreased in more acidic waters. When these organisms are at risk, the entire food web may also be at risk.
  • Ocean acidification is affecting the entire world’s oceans, including coastal estuaries and waterways. Many economies are dependent on fish and shellfish and people worldwide rely on food from the ocean as their primary source of protein.
  • Study has shown that elevated CO2 levels significantly decreased survival and growth rates in eggs and larvae of a fish.

Since fish are a highly diverse group of animals, and species will likely react differently to increasing CO2 levels. Thus the exact impact of ocean acidification on this diverse system will be too difficult to generalize.

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