McGregor in his argument has emphasised again on humanistic perspective and the involvement and participation in the organisational functioning in an organisation through his book ‘Human Side Of Enterprise’.
To explain the types of management styles existing in organisations he has given the following concepts:
Theory X of managers: It emphasises on structure,rules and procedures.
Theory Y of managers:Emphasise on human aspect. More successful approach in organising groups for productivity and efficiency as members experience high job satisfaction and for this reason perform commitedly.Read More
Another important contributor to humanistic perspective of organisational/administrative theory.
He criticised Classical theorists.
He stated that the formal/closed organisation theory suggested by them only leads to the worker becoming frustrated and failure.Read More
Participative Management as a theory advocates the use of a democratic and participative process in decision making instead of imperative decision making taken at superior levels only.
Subordinates are given equal stage as upper management in important decisions of the organisation to help them achieve self confidence and self respect and a feeling of belonging to the organisation as a whole.
Thus leading to integrated and successful organisation environment and functioning.Read More
Herbert Simon is also a great contributor of administrative theory and is regarded as the first Behaviourist.
The human relations were considered as the first Behaviourists but it was not fully developed and it was not recognised as such.
According to Simon administration/management requires an enquiry into how decisions are made and tasks performed and was the essential process of organisational action.
In his book ‘Administrative Behaviour’ he argued that ‘ making a decision is really making a choice between alternative courses of action or even between action and non-action’.Read More
Barnard is considered as a highly influential contributer and thinker to the field of administrative and organisational analysis and theory.
He developed his analysis based on his own practical experiences while working at various levels in companies.
He was a humanist(human relations school) as well as Behaviourist(theory of study of human mind based on people’s actions and behaviour not on what they say that they think or feel).
His work ‘ Functions of the Executive’ was a marvel in the field of administrative science.Read More
The Human Relations Approach was the starting point of the human revolution in administrative and organizational theory since the previous theories only concentrated the formal structure and technical aspects of organization and ignored the human aspect of it.
This theory focuses on human beings,their psychological motivations and informal group behaviour and looked at management as not being secluded but a web of interpersonal relationships.
The scholars from the human relations school advocated that human relations was the heart of the task of management as the latter involves working with a group and collective endeavour of people.Read More
Mary Parker Follett a contemporary management theorist contributed to the development of management though which differed from other writers of her period.
She figured in between the classical theorists and the human relations and behaviourist theorists.
To her organisation was a social system and psychological and sociological aspects were given prominence in her writings.Read More
Max Weber was a German sociologist who is credited with laying down the first proper theory of bureaucracy.
Bureaucracy was first coined by a French economist Vincent DeGourney in 1745 which literally means ‘desk rule’.
Weber is considered as one of the most important thinkers and contributors to administrative theory as his model of bureaucracy brought along a paradigm shift in the field.
Bureaucracy refers to a hierarchical organisation in which functions and powers are divided as per formal rules and regulations.Read More
The Classical Theory Approach is also known as the Administrative Management approach and Structural theory approach as it deals with advocating management/business practices and formal organisation’s structure.
Its important proponents are Henri Fayol,Luther Gulick,L.F. Urwick,J.D Mooney,A.C. Reilly,M.P. Follett and R. Shelton.
Each of them provided their own principles and improvised on each others works, but belonged to the same school of thought and thus differed very slightly.Read More
The Scientific management theory/approach is one of the most important theories of traditional public administration formulated by Frederick Winslow Taylor, who was an engineer by profession and always viewed each and every thing and its aspects scientifically and since he was into the production field, he was to be concerned with increasing efficiency of workers to increase production within the least possible time with the least possible resources.
Thus,ruling out wastage to the maximum and increase profits to the hilt.
Taylor is regarded as the father of the Scientific management approach.