Harappan Culture Town Planning 

Topics Covered

  • Introduction To Harrapan Culture
  • Settlements Of Harappans With Town Planning
  • Architecture Of Indus Valley Civilization Features
  • Drainage systems
  • Great Granary
  • Great Bath

Introduction To Harrapan Culture

  • The history of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as Harappan Civilization.
  • It flourished around 2,500 BC, in the western part of South Asia, in contemporary Pakistan and Western India.
  • The Indus Valley was home to the largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China.
  • In 1920s, the Archaeological Department of India carried out excavations in the Indus valley wherein the ruins of the two old cities, viz. Mohenjodaro and Harappa were unearthed.
  • In 1924, John Marshall, Director-General of the ASI, announced the discovery of a new civilisation in the Indus valley to the world.

Settlements of Harappans with Town planning

  • Harappa or Mohenjodaro in Pakistan
  • Kalibangan, Lothal or Sarkotada in India

Architecture of Indus Valley Civilization features

  • Urban Cities:Remarkable town planning, and excellent system of drainage and sanitation
  • Large cities divided into two parts:The ‘Citadel’ mound built on the high podium of mud-brick to the west. The town to the east was the main hub of the residential area, which was also surrounded by a massive brick wall
  • Streets: Fine drainage system, Well-arranged water supply system, The street lights system, Watch and ward arrangement during night to oust the law breakers, Particular places to throw thrash and waste material, Public wells in every street, Well in every house, Main streets varying for 9 feet to as wide as 30-34 feet and were divided into networks of narrow lanes with great skills of dividing the cities.
  • Building Materials:No stone built house in the Indus cities and the staircases of big buildings were solid; the roofs were flat and were made of wood. Material used: Burnt bricks Sun-dried bricks

Drainage System

  • Advanced drainage and sanitation system.
  • Each house had horizontal and vertical drains and the house drains were connected with road drains.
  • There were underground drains for the streets and there drains were shielded by stone slabs. Bricks were used to make the soak pits.

Great Granary

  • Great granary at Harappa measuring 169 fit x 135 fit.
  • Attached to the granary were two roomed tenements with a common courtyard.

Great Bath

  • The overall dimension of the Great Public Bath is 180 feet by 108 feet.
  • The bathing pool measured about 39 feet by 23 feet with 8 feet depth.
  • There is a device to fill and empty the water of the bathing pool and the bathing pools were encircled with galleries and rooms.
  • The urban planning of the Harappan has become a landmark for the contemporary civilization and we can get a hint of the modern day swimming pools and storehouses from their concept of bathing pools and granaries.
  • Overall the Harappa town planning was very scientific and clearly indicates that the Harappan were chiefly urban people.