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By : brainykey   April 30, 2018

Protection Of Human Rights (Amendments) Bill, 2018


  • G.S. Paper 2
  • Protection of Human Rights (Amendments) Bill, 2018
  • About National Human Rights Commission of India


  • The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has given its approval to the Protection of Human Rights (Amendments) Bill, 2018 for better protection and promotion of human rights in the country.

Protection of Human Rights (Amendments) Bill, 2018:

  • The Salient Features of the bill are as follows:
    • It proposes to include “National Commission for Protection of Child Rights” as deemed Member of the Commission
    • It proposes to add a woman Member in the composition of the Commission
    • It proposes to enlarge the scope of eligibility and scope of selection of Chairperson, National Human Rights Commission as well as the State Human Rights Commission
    • It proposes to incorporate a mechanism to look after the cases of human rights violation in the Union Territories
    • It proposes to amend the term of office of Chairperson and Members of National Human Rights Commission and State Human Rights Commission to make it in consonance with the terms of Chairperson and Members of other Commissions.

National Human Rights commission of India:

  • The Rights Commission (NHRC) of India is an autonomous public body constituted on 12 October 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Ordinance of 28 September 1993.
  • It was given a statutory basis by the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 (TPHRA).
  • The NHRC is the National Human Rights Commission of India, responsible for the protection and promotion of human rights, defined by the Act as “rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants”

The National Human Rights Commission is constituted by the central government and comprises:

  • A Chairperson who is a retired Chief Justice of India
  • One Member who is or has been a Judge of the Supreme Court
  • One Member who is or has been the Chief Justice of a High Court
  • Two Members to be appointed from amongst persons having knowledge of or practical experience in matters relating to human rights
  • Chairperson of the National Commission for Minorities,
  • Chairperson of the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
  • Chairperson of the National Commission for Women


Bhabha Kavach


  • G.S. Paper 2,3
  • About Bhabha Kavach
  • The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC)


  • The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has developed a a next-generation bulletproof jacket called as the Bhabha Kavach.


  • The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has developed a next-generation bulletproof jacket for the Indian armed forces.
  • This jacket is not only cheaper but also much lighter.
  • Bhabha Kavach, named after nuclear physicist Dr. Homi J. Bhabha.
  • The jacket weighs just 6.6 kg in comparison to the 17-kg jackets in use, and has passed over 30 tests carried out by certified agencies.
  • Bhabha Kavach is available in three variants as per the requirement of the armed forces.
  • The jacket is made using extremely hard boron carbide ceramics that is hot-pressed with carbon nano-tubes and composite polymer.
  • BARC has been using boron carbide in the control rods of its nuclear reactors.
  • While the cost of a Bhabha Kavach is ₹70,000, jackets of similar strength are available in the range of ₹1.5 lakh and have to be imported.
  • The superior performance of the light weight jacket derives from advanced ceramics and advanced nano-composite tubes indigenously developed at BARC.
  • Presently, the forces use bulletproof jackets weighing over 10 kg and are made of jackal armour steel, alumina and silica.
  • Jackets made using boron carbide are first in India.
  • Bhabha Kavach has been designed to protect against AK-47 (hard steel bullets), SLR and INSAS weaponry.
  • BARC has transferred the technology of Bhabha Kavach to Mishra Dhatu Nigam, Hyderabad, for its large-scale production.

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC):

  • The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is India’s premier nuclear research facility headquartered in Trombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
  • BARC is a multi-disciplinary research centre with extensive infrastructure for advanced research and development covering the entire spectrum of nuclear science, engineering and related areas.
  • BARC’s core mandate is to sustain peaceful applications of nuclear energy, primarily for power generation.
  • BARC research focus areas are the following:
    • Nuclear power generation
    • Theoretical design of reactors
    • Computerised modelling and simulation
    • Risk analysis
    • Development and testing of new reactor fuel materials
    • Applications for isotopes in industries, medicine and agriculture
    • Spent fuel processing
    • Safe disposal of nuclear waste
    • BARC operates a number of research reactors across the country.


Plastic Waste Management (Amendment) Rules 2018


  • G.S. Paper 2
  • Plastic waste management (amendment) rules 2018


  • The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has recently notified the Plastic Waste Management (Amendment) Rules 2018.

Plastic waste management (amendment) rules 2018:

  • The amended Rules lay down the following points:
    • As per the amended rules, the phasing out of Multilayered Plastic (MLP) will now be valid. (The Multilayered Plastic is non-recyclable, non-energy recoverable and has no alternate use).
    • A central registration system for the registration of the producer/importer/brand owner.
    • Any mechanism for the registration should be automated and should take into account ease of doing business for producers, recyclers and manufacturers.
    • The centralised registration system will be evolved by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for the registration of the producer, importer or brand owner.
    • Producers with presence in more than two states need to apply for national registry with the Central Pollution Control Board.
    • Any small producers or brand owners operating within one or two states require a state-level registration with the State Pollution Control Board.
    • The Rule 15 of the Plastic Waste Management (Amendment) Rules, 2018 has been removed which stated the explicit pricing of the carry bags.



Atal New India Challenge


  • G.S. Paper 2
  • About Atal new India challenge


  • The NITI Aayog has launched Atal New India Challenge under Atal Innovation Mission and has invited applications for the same.

Atal New India Challenge:

  • Atal New India Challenge is an initiative by Atal Innovation Mission aimed at supporting innovators to create products/solutions based on advanced technologies in areas of national importance and social relevance through a grant-based mechanism.
  • The vision of the Atal New India Challenge is two-fold:
    • Help create products from existing technologies relevant for national and social causes (productization)
    • Help new deep-tech products find markets and early customers (commercialization) in the context of India.
  • The Atal New India Challenge shall be run in collaboration with five ministries.
  • AIM will invite prospective innovators/MSMEs/start-ups to design market-ready products, using cutting edge technologies or prototypes across 17 identified focus areas such as Climate Smart Agriculture, Smart Mobility, Predictive Maintenance of Rolling Stock, Waste Management etc.
  • Applicants showing capability, intent and potential to productize technologies will be awarded grants up to Rs. One crore.
  • This grant will be further supplemented by mentoring, handholding, incubating and other support as needed at various stages of commercialisation, while generating wider deployment for the product.


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