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HOME RULE MOVEMENT AND ITS FALLOUT

HOME RULE MOVEMENT AND ITS FALLOUT

REASONS FOR DOWNFALL OF THE MOVEMENT IN 1919

  1. There was a lack of effective organisation.
  2. Communal riots were witnessed during 1917-18.
  3. The Moderates who had joined the Congress after Besant’s arrest were pacified by talk of reforms (contained in Montagu’s statement of August 1917 which held self- government as the long-term goal of the British rule in India) and Besant’s release.
  4. Talk of passive resistance by the Extremists kept the Moderates off from activity from September 1918 onwards.
  5. Montagu-Chelmsford reforms which became known in July 1918 further divided the nationalist ranks.
  6. Tilak had to go abroad (September 1918) in connection with a case while Annie Besant vacillated over her response to the reforms and the techniques of passive resistance. With Besant unable to give a positive lead and Tilak away in England, the movement was left leaderless.

BENEFITS REAPED DUE TO THE MOVEMENT

  1. The movement shifted the emphasis from the educated elite to the masses and permanently deflected the movement from the course mapped by the Moderates.
  2. It created an organisational link between the town and the country, which was to prove crucial in later years when the movement entered its mass phase in a true sense.
  3. It created a generation of ardent nationalists.
  4. It prepared the masses for politics of the Gandhian style.
  5. The August 1917 declaration of Montagu and the Montford reforms were influenced by the Home Rule agitation.
  6. Tilak’s and Besant’s efforts in the Moderate-Extremist reunion at Lucknow (1916) revived the Congress as an effective instrument of Indian nationalism.
  7. It lent a new dimension and a sense of urgency to the national movement.

GOVERNMENT RESPONSE

  • The Government came down with severe repression, especially in Madras where the students were prohibited from attending political meetings. A case was instituted against Tilak which was rescinded by the High Court.
  • Tilak was barred from entering the Punjab and Delhi. In June 1917, Annie Besant and her associates, B.P. Wadia and George Arundale, were arrested.
  • This invited nationwide protest. In a dramatic gesture, Sir S. Subramaniya Aiyar renounced his knighthood while Tilak advocated a programme of passive resistance.
  • The repression only served to harden the attitude of the agitators and strengthen their resolve to resist the Government. Montagu, the secretary of state, commented that ‘Shiva’ cut his wife into fifty-two pieces only to discover that he had fifty-two wives.                                                      HOME RULE MOVEMENT AND ITS FALLOUT
  • This is what happens to the Government of India when it interns Mrs Besant. The Government released Besant in September 1917.

ALSO READ : https://www.brainyias.com/factors-leading-to-the-home-rule-movement/

Modern History

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