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Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA)

Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA)


  1. To rouse the consciousness of people of India to the futility of the Gandhian methods of non-violence;
  2. To demonstrate the need and desirability of Direct Action and Revolution to achieve complete independence.
  3. To substitute British imperialism in India by a federated republic of the United States of India ideologically inspired by the Russian Revolution and the Socialist thought.


  • The revolutionaries also introduced a novelty in their methods to finance their activities. Henceforth, they decided not to plunder private individuals but to make government treasuries above as the target of their acuities.
  • In August 1925, the UP revolutionaries successfully carried on the dacoit of the Kakori bound train. The subsequent trial proceedings in the Kakori Conspiracy Case evoked wide sympathetic echoes  in the press. The leader Ram Prasad Bismil embraced the gallows with the slogan “I wish the downfall of the British Empire.”
  • A band of Punjabi revolutionaries led by Bhagat Singh shot dead Saunders, the Assistant Superintendent of Police, Lahore to avenge the fatal assault on Lala Lajpat Rai during the anti-Simon Commission demonstrations.                              Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA)
  • The police unleashed a reign of terror on the Lahore civilians and the general public reaction was that while the revolutionaries escaped after daring acts, the public had to suffer consequences of their doings. To efface this impression, the Punjab government of the HSRA decided to send two volunteers to commit a crime and court arrest.
  • Following this decision, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Duff threw a bomb in the Central Legislative Assembly in April 1929.
  • They had no intention to kill but to demonstrate that “It takes a loud noise to make the deaf hear.” Since capital punishment could not be awarded in the Assembly Bomb case, the Government combined it with the Lahore Conspiracy case and sentenced Bhagat Singh, Raj Guru and Sukhdev to capital punishment.
  • They were executed in Lahore jail on the 23rd March, 1931.                                Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA)

In Bengal :

  • During 1920s many revolutionary groups reorganized their underground activities, while many continued working with congress, thus getting access to masses and providing for an organizational base to the congress in towns and villages.                            Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA)
  • Many cooperated with C.R. Das in his Swarajist works. After Das’s death in 1925, congress broke into two factions-one led by J.M. Sengupta (Anushilan group joined forces with him) and the other led by Subhash Bose (Yugantar group backed him)
  • The actions of the bifurcated groups included the assassination attempt of Calcutta Commissioner — Charles Tegart by Gopinath Saha in 1924 (another man named Day got killed). The government with the new ordinance came down heavily on revolutionaries, arresting major leaders.
  • Subhash Bose was arrested. Gopinath Saha was hanged. Surya Sen master minded the Chittagong Armory Raid in April 1930 and declared himself the President of the Provisional Independent Government of India.                                        Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA)
  • The revolutionaries demonstrated their valor but without much tangible success. Surya Sen could not for long escape the arm of the police and was arrested and hanged in early 1933.


Modern History

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