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  • Geothermal energy is the heat that comes from the sub-surface of the earth. It is contained in the rocks and fluids beneath the earth’s crust and can be found as far down to the earth’s hot molten rock, magma.
  • Geothermal power is the electricity generated from the heat source within the earth’s crust.
  • This geothermal energy originates from the geological processes during formation of the planet, radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface.
  • Geothermal heat energy can be recovered and exploited for human use, and it is available anywhere on Earth’s surface.

People can capture geothermal energy through:

  • Geothermal power plants, which use heat from deep inside the Earth to generate steam to make electricity.
  • Geothermal heat pumps, which tap into heat close to the Earth’s surface to heat water or provide heat for buildings.


  1. Hot water is pumped from deep underground through a well under high pressure.
  2. When the water reaches the surface, the pressure is dropped, which causes the water to turn into steam.
  3. The steam spins a turbine, which is connected to a generator that produces electricity.
  4. The steam cools off in a cooling tower and condenses back to water.
  5. The cooled water is pumped back into the Earth to begin the process again.


  • India’s first-ever Geothermal Field Development Project is to be established in Leh . The project would be undertaken by ONGC.
  • The project will be named as Geothermal Field Development Project which will going to established at Puga Village off Eastern Ladakh.
  • Puga has been identified as the hotspot of geothermal energy in the country (potential of more than 100 mw of geothermal energies.)

 India’s first-ever geothermal field development project

ONGC has planned this Geothermal Field Development Project in Ladakh in three phases

  • Phase 1:It involves drilling upto 500 metres depth and setting up of a pilot plant of up to 1 megawatt (MW) power capacity.
  • Phase 2: It involves deeper drilling to explore the potential of the thermal reservoir and setting up of a higher capacity demo plant and preparing a detailed project report.
  • Phase 3: This phase include set up of a commercial plant . The estimated power supply would be of 250 MW.

Environment & Biodiversity

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