GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)
GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)
The GSLV is an expendable launch system operated by the ISRO.
It was developed to enable India to launch its INSAT-type satellites into geostationary orbit and to make India less dependent on foreign rockets.
STAGES [GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)]
- The GSLV improved on the performance of the PSLV with the addition of liquid strap-on boosters and a cryogenic upper stage.
- It is a three-stage launch vehicle with the first stage being solid-propelled, the second liquid-propelled (with hypergolic fuels) and the final stage being liquid propelled as well (with cryogenic fuels). The solid first and liquid second stages are carried over from the PSLV.
- Early Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) launches used cryogenic upper stages supplied by Russia. India originally tried to buy the technology to build a cryogenic upper stage from Russia, but under pressure from the United States, that technology was not provided.
- Therefore, ISRO developed the cryogenic engine used in the GSLV indigenously at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre at Mahendragiri near Nagercoil.
The GSLV uses four L40 liquid strap-on boosters derived from the L37.5 second stage, which are loaded with 40 tons of hypergolic propellants (UDMH & N2O4).
- The First Stage S139 stage is made of M250 grade maraging steel and it has a nominal propellant loading of 139 t.
- The Second Stage is powered by the Vikas engine. It uses 37.5 metric tons of liquid propellants with UDMH as fuel and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as oxidizer.
- The Third Stage is propelled by a cryogenic rocket engine and uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX).
GSLV Mk.I (a) – This variant had a 125 t (S-125) first stage and was capable of launching 1500 kg into geostationary transfer orbit. This is retired.
GSLV Mk.I (b) – This variant had 139 t (S-139) first stage and improved fuel in the strap-on boosters & second stage. This variant can launch 1900 kg into geostationary transfer orbit. This is retired.
GSLV Mk.I (c) – This variant has a 15 tonne Russian third stage. GSLV-F06 (flight 6) is the only attempted launch of the Mark 1(c) version to date. GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)
GSLV Mk.II – This variant uses an Indian cryogenic engine, the CE-7.5, and is capable of launching 2500 kg into geostationary transfer orbit. Previous GSLV vehicles (GSLV Mk.1) have used Russian cryogenic engines.
GSLV Mk.III –
- The GSLV-III or Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III is a launch vehicle under development by the Indian Space Research Organisation.
- It is intended to launch satellites into geostationary orbit and as a launcher for an Indian crew vehicle.
- The GSLV Mk-111 is a three stage vehicle with a first stage consisting of two identical large solid boosters strapped onto the second liquid stage. The third stage is a cryogenic stage.
- The development for the GSLV Mk III began in the early 2000s, with the first launch planned for 2009-2010. Several factors have delayed the program, including the 15 April 2010 failure of the ISRO-developed cryogenic upper stage on the GSLV Mk II.
- A suborbital flight test of the GSLV Mk3 launcher, without its cryogenic third stage, is planned by end of 2014, and will be used to test a crew module on a suborbital trajectory. The first orbital flight is planned to take place in 2016. The first flight with a crew on board would take place after 2020.
DESCRIPTION [GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)]
STAGE 1 – SOLID BOOSTERS
- The GSLV-III will use two S-200 solid motors, also designated Large Solid Boosters (LSB).
- Each booster will have a diameter of 3.2 metres, a length of 25 metres, and will contain 200 tonnes of propellant.
- These boosters burn for 130 seconds and produce a peak thrust of about 5,150 kilonewtons each.
STAGE 2 – LIQUID MOTOR
- The core stage, designated L-110, will be a 4-meter diameter liquid-fuelled stage containing 110 tonnes of propellant.
- It will be the first Indian liquid engine cluster design, and will use two improved Vikas engines, each producing about 700 kilonewtons of thrust and burning UH 25 (75%UDMH, 25% hydrazine) and N204.
- The improved Vikas engine will use regenerative cooling, providing improved weight and specific impulse, compared to earlier rockets. The L-110 core stage will ignite 113 seconds after liftoff and burn for about 200 seconds.
STAGE 3- CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE
- The cryogenic upper stage is designated the C-25 and will be powered by the Indian-developed CE-20 engine burning LOX and LH2, producing 20 tonnes-force of thrust.
- The C-25 will be 4 metres in diameter and 8.2 metres long, and contain 25 tonnes of propellant.
- This engine is slated for completion and testing by 2015, it will then be integrated with the 0-25 stage and be put through a series of tests.
- The first C-25 stage will be used on the GSLV MK-III D-1 mission in early 2017. This mission will put in orbit the GSAT-19E communication satellite.
- Work on the C-25 stage and CE-20 engine for GSLV Mk-Ill upper stage was initiated in 2003, the project has been subject to many delays due to problems with ISRO’s smaller cryogenic engine, the CE-7.5 for GSLV MK-II upper stage.
LAUNCH HISTORY OF GSLV [GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)]
All GSLV launches have been conducted from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.
|D1/MkI(a)||18 April 2001||GSAT-1|
|D2/MkI(a)||8 May 2003||GSAT-2|
|F01/MkI(b)||20 September 2004||EDUSAT|
|F02/MkI(b)||10 July 2006||INSAT-4C|
|F04/MkI(b)||2 September 2007||INSAT-4CR|
|15 April 2010||GSAT-4 I|
|25 December 2010||GSAT-5P|
|D4/MkII||5 January 2014||GSAT-14|
PLANNED LAUNCH [GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)]
|FLIGHTNARIANT||LAUNCH DATE , (Tentative)||PAYLOAD|
|D6/Mk II||March 2015||GSAT — 16|
|X1/Mk III||December 2014||Crew Module (Boilerplate)|
|E1/Mk III||Early 2017||GSAT-19E|
GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)
LATEST GEO STATIONARY SATELLITES
- It is an Indian communications satellite launched on 5 January 2014. It is expected to replace the GSAT-3 satellite, which was launched in 2004.
- GSAT-14 was launched by a GSLV Mk II, which incorporated an Indian-built cryogenic engine on the third stage.
- GSAT-14 is part of the GSAT series of satellites. Constructed by 1SRO, it is based around the I-2K satellite bus. The spacecraft has a design life of 12 years.
- The satellite carries six Ku-band and six Extended C-band transponders to provide coverage of the whole of India. The satellite is expected to provide enhanced broadcasting services over the GSAT-3 satellite.
- GSAT-14 also carries two Ka-band beacons which will be used to conduct research into how weather affects Ka-band satellite communications.
- Fibre optic gyro, active pixel sun sensor, round type bolometer and field programmable gate array based earth sensors and thermal control coating experiments are new technologies which were flown as experiments in the satellite.
- The satellite is powered by two solar arrays, generating 2,600 watts of power. The launch marked the first successful flight test of the CE-7.5, India’s first cryogenically-fuelled rocket engine.
GSAT-1 6 [GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)]
- It will be the 11th Indian communication satellite meant to increase the number of transponders that in turn enhance the satellite based telecommunication, television, VSAT services in India.
- The satellite will carry 12 ku, 24 C and 12 Extended C band transponders. The satellite will also carry highest Indian ku-beacon transmitter.
- GSAT-16 will have estimated lifespan of 12 years. It will support civil aviation services apart from backing up the services provided by other communication satellites.
- The satellite is aimed as a replacement for satellite INSAT-3E. GSAT-16 is planned to be launched on 5 December 2014 from Kourou, French Guiana by Ariane 5.
- GSAT-5P (Prime) was 2,310-kilogram (5,100 lb) Indian communications satellite which was lost in a launch failure of GSLV F06 (Mk.l.c) in December 2010 from SDSC, Sriharikota.
- Part of the Indian National Satellite System, it was intended to operate in geosynchronous orbit as a replacement for INSAT-3E.
- It was equipped with 36 transponders operating in the G/H band of the NATO-defined spectrum, or the C band of the older IEEE spectrum.
GSAT-4 [GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)]
- GSAT-4, also known as HealthSat, was an experimental communication and navigation satellite launched on 15 April 2010 by the Indian Space Research Organisation on the maiden flight of the GSLV-D3 (Mk.II) rocket.
- It failed to reach orbit after the rocket’s third stage malfunctioned. The third stage was the first Indian-built cryogenic-fuelled upper stage, and was making its first flight.
- The ISRO suspects that the failure was caused by the third stage not igniting.
- GSAT-4 carried the first GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation, or GAGAN, navigation payload. GSAT-4 was also intended to carry to the Israeli TAUVEX-2 space telescope array.
- Due to concerns that the new upper stage may have reduced the rocket’s payload capacity, ISRO decided to remove TAUVEX in order to decrease the mass of the payload. GAGAN was still flown.
- GSAT-4 carried a multi-channel, Ka-band, bent pipe and regenerative transponder, and a navigation payload in the C, L1, and L5 bands.
- Designed to guide civil and military aircraft, GSAT-4 was to have employed several new technologies such as a bus management unit, miniaturised dynamically tuned gyros, lithium-ion battery, 70 volt bus ‘or Ka-band travelling-wave tube amplifiers, and electric propulsion.
- GSAT-4 also incorporated technological experiments like on-board structural dynamic experiment, thermal control coating experiment and vibration beam accelerometer.
- GSAT-4 was also to have been the first Indian spacecraft to employ ion propulsion.
GSAT-6/INSAT-4E [GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)]
- The primary goal of GSAT-6/INSAT-4E, which is a Multimedia broadcast satellite, is to cater to the consumer requirements of providing entertainment and information services to vehicles through Digital Multimedia consoles and to the Multimedia mobile Phones.
- The satellite carries a 5 spot beam BSS and 5 spot beam MSS. It will be positioned at 83° East longitude with a mission life of 12 years.
GSAT-11 [GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)]
- A new satellite named GSAT-11 will provide advanced telecom services from 2013. At 4.5 tonnes, it will weigh more than twice as much as the biggest Indian satellite in orbit now.
- The advanced communications technology satellite will be launched on board the GSLV-Mark III from ISRO’s spaceport at Sriharikota. GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)
- With 16 high capacity multi-beams in Ku/Ka band, GSAT-11 will provide much faster uplinks for a host of communications and broadcasting services including direct-to-home (DTH television) service.
- The advanced satellite will employ a new 1-4K Bus (computer network). It will be configured with two-sided large solar array panels generating 11 KW of power.
GSLV AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR INDIAN SPACE PROGRAMME
- GSLV is the most advanced generation of India’s launch vehicles after ASLV & PSLV. It is a three-stage launch vehicle. GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)
- GSLV is capable of lifting a 2500 kg INSAT class satellites in to GTO from where it can be manoeuvred & moved into the final geostationary orbit 36,000 kms above the equator.
- The First launch of GSLV was GSLV-D1 which placed experimental communication satellite GSAT-1 in the GTO. The second was GSLV-D2 which placed the GSAT-2 in GTO.
- The launch of GSLV has put India in the select League of Nations with the capability to place multipurpose satellites in orbit & send space missions. GSLV has given India the ICBM status which can direct an explosive to a distance of 5000 km. Besides, the immaculate guidance system of GSLV is an added advantage.
- The success of GSLV gives India the capability of launching communication satellites into the GTO. It makes India a pot player in the commercial launch services for communication satellites.
The armed forces need a dedicated satellite which can provide them imagery of a particular region on demand. They also need ability to launch low earth sat for detailed surveillance.
With the launch of GSLV such a scenario has became a reality. GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)