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Gender Development and Inequality Index

Gender Development and Inequality Index

GENDER DEVELOPMENT INDEX (GDI)

  • GDI measures achievement in the same basic dimensions as the HDI does, but takes note of inequality in achievement between men and women. GDI was calculated from 1995 to 2009 but has been discontinued in HDR, 2010 but resumed with 2014 report.
  • It is calculated for 148 countries and not for all those 187 ranked in HDI.
  • It is calculated as Female HDI / Male HDI
  • So, the best country will be that where female and male HDI is same. In HDR 2014, Slovakia got the 1st rank and India is ranked at 132.  Gender Development and Inequality Index

The value of the GDI falls in two cases:

  1. when achievement level of both women and men in a country goes down
  2. when disparity between their achievements increases or both (i) and (ii) occurs

GENDER INEQUALITY INDEX (GII):

  • GII is also a measure of gender disparity in terms of human development but unlike the earlier indices, it focuses on the loss in achievements in the three dimensions. Gender Development and Inequality Index
  • Thus, GII tries to portray gender inequality as lack of basic amenities to women in weaker sections of societies rather than focusing on higher levels of achievement by women.

Accordingly, GII captures the loss in achievements due to gender disparity in three dimensions: 

  • Reproductive Health, as measured by Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) and Adolescent Fertility Rate (AFR)
  • Empowerment, as measured by:
  • Female and male population with at least secondary education
  • Female and male shares of parliamentary seats
  • Labour Force Participation of male and female
  • Maternal Mortality Rate is defined as number of maternal deaths per 1,00,000 live births. However, in under developed and developing countries like India MMR is also defined per 1,000 live births.
  • Adolescent Fertility Rate (AFR) is defined as number of births per 1,000 women in the age-group of 15-19 years.
  • Labour force participation rate is the percentage of working-age population (15­64 years) that actively engages in labour market by either working or actively looking for work.
  • The value of Gil ranges from 0 (zero) denoting Perfect Equality to 1 (One) denoting Perfect Inequality. Thus, higher the GII, greater is the gender disparity in terms of human development.
  • The Gender Inequality Index relies on data from major publicly available databases, including the. maternal mortality ratio from UNICEF’s.
  • The State of the World’s Children; adolescent fertility rates from the UN Department of Economic and Social Affair’s World Population Prospects; educational attainment statistics from the UNESCO institute for Statistics educational attainment tables and the Barro-Lee data sets; parliamentary representation from the International Parliamentary Union; and labour market participation from the International Labour Organization’s LABORSTA database.
  • The Gender Inequality Index provides insights into gender disparities in health, empowerment and labour market in 157 countries.
  • If can be useful to help governments and others understand the ramifications of gaps between women and men. The Gender Inequality Index, as any other global composite index, is constrained by the need for international comparability. But it could be readily adapted for use at the national or local level.
  • The Gender Inequality Index faces major data limitations, which constrains the choice of indicators. For example, we use national parliamentary representation that excludes participation at the local government level and elsewhere in community and public life. The labour market dimension lacks information on incomes, employment and an unpaid work mostly done by women.  Gender Development and Inequality Index
  • The Index misses other important dimensions, such as time use — the fact that many women have the additional burden of care giving and housekeeping, which cut into leisure time and increase stress and physical exhaustion. Asset ownership, gender-based violence and participation in community decision-making are also not captured, mainly due to limited data availability. India is ranked at 127, with value to be 0.563.

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