About Us  :  Online Enquiry

Public Administration by G.Rajput


Fredrick Taylor

Fredrick Taylor

At the turn of the 20th century, the American engineer, Frederick Winslow Taylor, proposed scientific methodologies to improve the productivity of shop floors at large plants. He argued that labour problems such as low productivity, high turnover, soldiering, and a conflict-driven relationship between management and staff were caused by improper production and organisation methods.

Taylor was trained as an engineer and practised engineering for much of his professional life. The core of his Scientific Management is that an organisation operates like a machine. Taylor treated individual work tasks as gears in a machine. Specific tasks were minutely examined and grouped together based on their characteristics. Contrary to Fayol’s view, Taylor saw organisational design as a bottom-up process where the administrative side is a derivative of the operational side.


Taylor developed his ideas at Midvale Steel with its 2,000 employees, and Bethlehem Iron with 4,000 workers. The size of these industrialised firms had forced management to adopt new methodologies to allocate and control labour. Taylor used empirical study to redesign the routine tasks in the manufacture of industrial products. His consultancy firm implemented his recommendations in over 180 factories in the United States and Europe.


The aim of Scientific Management was to increase efficiency from specialised, physical work through pre-described activities and close supervision. The “one best way” to execute such basic managerial functions as selection, promotion, compensation, training, and production had to be discovered, applied and checked on a continuous basis.


Taylor advocated:


1. Systematic analysis of each distinct operation

‘Create an elaborate set of rules to regulate every aspect of worker behaviour at the workplace’ instead of relying on rule of thumb. Subdividing production processes into individual tasks to achieve task specialisation, using time and motion studies to determine the most efficient method for performing each work task and providing necessary rest periods were part of his analysis. Taylor’s famous phrase ‘Time is Money‘ relates to such studies.


2. Uncoupling direct and indirect activities

Stripping all preparation and servicing tasks from unskilled operator jobs and grouping them into service jobs that are executed by higher skilled maintenance workers.


3. Carefully designing wage payments to maximize employee work effort

Providing a piece-rate system of compensation of meritorious bonuses. Taylor hated “soldiering“, a term describing the group process in which workers slow their pace of work to suit the average worker’s needs. “Pay the Worker, Not the Job”.


4. Adopting formal training activities

Selecting and training employees by thoroughly investigating personalities and skills so individual workers could not acquire unique knowledge that could raise their position of power.


5. Centralized planning

Uncoupling planning and operations. Workers execute the will of the managers rather than exercise their own judgement. Workers were seen as replaceable gears in a larger machinery, or in Taylor’s words: “In the past the man has been first; in the future the system must be first”.


6. Provision of clear instruction

Readdressing the foreman’s role as overseer over all aspects of production, and subdividing the function of the shop-floor inspector into four areas: setting-up boss, speed boss, quality inspector, and repair boss, each controlled by a planning department to coordinate and integrate the instructions required to run large and complex organisations. Subjecting the foremen and their staff to the rule of administrative clerks through systems of abstract rules and hierarchal power.

Functional foremanship

What is scientific movement all about ?   

Taylors scientific management consisted of four principles:

  1. Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks.
  2. Scientifically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves.
  3. Provide Detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that workers discrete task (Montgomery 1997: 250).
  4. Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.

    Why was taylor. thrown out of bethleham steel company?

  • Taylors written works were designed for presentation to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). These include Notes on Belting (1894), A Piece-Rate System (1895), Shop Management (1903), Art of Cutting Metals (1906), and The Principles of Scientific Management (1911).
  • One of his most famous studies involved shovels. He noticed that workers used the same shovel for all materials. He determined that the most effective load was 21½ pounds, and found or designed shovels that for each material would scoop up that amount. He was generally unsuccessful in getting his concepts applied, and was dismissed from Bethlehem Iron Company/Bethlehem Steel Company.

      What is scientific Management?

Scientific management is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows. Its main objective is improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity. It was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes to management. Scientific management is sometimes known as Taylorism after its founder, Frederick Winslow Taylor.

Taylor began the theorys development in the United States during the 1880s and 90s within manufacturing industries, especially steel. Its peak of influence came in the 1910s;Taylor died in 1915 and by the 1920s, scientific management was still influential but had entered into competition and syncretism with opposing or complementary ideas.

Although scientific management as a distinct theory or school of thought was obsolete by the 1930s, most of its themes are still important parts of industrial engineering and management today. These include: analysis; synthesis; logic; rationality; empiricism; work ethic; efficiency and elimination of waste; standardization of best practices; disdain for tradition preserved merely for its own sake or to protect the social status of particular workers with particular skill sets; the transformation of craft production into mass production; and knowledge transfer between workers and from workers into tools, processes, and documentation.

     History of scientific movement?

The Midvale Steel Company, one of Americas great armor plate making plants, was the birthplace of scientific management. In 1877, at age 22, Frederick W. Taylor started as a clerk in Midvale, but advanced to foreman in 1880. As foreman, Taylor was constantly impressed by the failure of his [team members] to produce more than about one-third of [what he deemed] a good days work.Taylor determined to discover, by scientific methods, how long it should take men to perform each given piece of work; and it was in the fall of 1882 that he started to put the first features of scientific management into operation.

Horace Bookwalter Drury, in his 1918 work, Scientific management: A History and Criticism, identified seven other leaders in the movement, most of whom learned of and extended scientific management from Taylors efforts:

  • Henry L. Gantt (1861–1919)
  • Carl G. Barth (1860–1939)
  • Horace K. Hathaway (1878–1944)
  • Morris L. Cooke (1872–1960)
  • Sanford E. Thompson (1867–1949)
  • Frank B. Gilbreth (1868–1924). Gilbreths independent work on motion study is on record as early as 1885; after meeting Taylor in 1906 and being introduced to scientific management, Gilbert devoted his efforts to introducing scientific management into factories. Gilbreth and his wife Dr Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878–1972) performed micro-motion studies using stop-motion cameras as well as developing the profession of industrial/organizational psychology.
  • Harrington Emerson (1853–1931) began determining what industrial plants products and costs were compared to what they ought to be in 1895. Emerson did not meet Taylor until December 1900, and the two never worked together.

What is soldiering 

Scientific management requires a high level of managerial control over employee work practices and entails a higher ratio of managerial workers to laborers than previous management methods.Such detail-oriented management may cause friction between workers and managers.

Taylor observed that some workers were more talented than others, and that even smart ones were often unmotivated. He observed that most workers who are forced to perform repetitive tasks tend to work at the slowest rate that goes unpunished. This slow rate of work has been observed in many industries and many countries and has been called by various terms. Taylor used the term soldiering, a term that reflects the way conscripts may approach following orders, and observed that, when paid the same amount, workers will tend to do the amount of work that the slowest among them does. Taylor describes soldiering as the greatest evil with which the working-people … are now afflicted.

Why was taylor so controversial?

A committee of the U.S. House of Representatives investigated and reported in 1912, concluding that scientific management did provide some useful techniques and offered valuable organizational suggestions, but that it also gave production managers a dangerously high level of uncontrolled power. After an attitude survey of the workers revealed a high level of resentment and hostility towards scientific management, the Senate banned Taylors methods at the arsenal

In 1911, organized labor erupted with strong opposition to scientific management,including from Samuel Gompers, founder and president of the American Federation of Labor (AFL).

Once the time-and-motion men had completed their studies of a particular task, the workers had very little opportunity for further thinking, experimenting, or suggestion-making. Taylorism was criticized for turning the worker into an automaton or machine,making work monotonous and unfulfilling by doing one small and rigidly defined piece of work instead of using complex skills with the whole production process done by one person. The further progress of industrial development… increased the anomic or forced pision of labor, the opposite of what Taylor thought would be the effect. Some workers also complained about being made to work at a faster pace and producing goods of lower quality

Subsequent form of Scientific Management

Subsequent forms of scientific management were articulated by Taylors disciples, such as Henry Gantt; other engineers and managers, such as Benjamin S. Graham; and other theorists, such as Max Weber. Taylors work also contrasts with other efforts, including those of Henri Fayol and those of Frank Gilbreth, Sr. and Lillian Moller Gilbreth (whose views originally shared much with Taylors but later perged in response to Taylorisms inadequate handling of human relations).

Criticism of Taylor

Many of the critiques of Taylor come from Marxists. The earliest was by Antonio Gramsci, an Italian Communist, in his Prison Notebooks (1937). Gramsci argued that Taylorism subordinates the workers to management. He also argued that the repetitive work produced by Taylorism might actually give rise to revolutionary thoughts in workers minds.[49]

Harry Bravermans work, Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, published in 1974, was critical of scientific management and of Taylor in particular.

Management theorist Henry Mintzberg is highly critical of Taylors methods. Mintzberg states that an obsession with efficiency allows measureable benefits to overshadow less quantifiable social benefits completely, and social values get left behind.[50]

Taylors methods have also been challenged by socialists. Their arguments relate to progressive defanging of workers in the workplace and the subsequent degradation of work as management, powered by capital, uses Taylors methods to render work repeatable and precise yet monotonous and skill-reducing.

James W. Rinehart argued that Taylors methods of transferring control over production from workers to management, and the pision of labor into simple tasks, intensified the alienation of workers that had begun with the factory system of production around the period 1870 to 1890

Read more :


Q.What is scientific management?

Q.Why scientific management was controversial?

Q.What is functional foreman-ship? 

300 Key sentences for Pub Ad

Use this sentence or idea while writing answer on woodrow wilson.You can also make a diagram on the same  The politics/administration distinction its

Blaksburg Manifesto

Refounding Public Administration (Wamsley et al., 1990) was a pioneering publication in the field of U.S. public administration. It was one of the ea


What is MIS? MIS is the use of information technology, people, and business processes to record, store and process data to produce information that de

Organisation and Methods (O & M)

Organisation and Methods (O & M) The Meaning of O and M-The O and M is an abbreviation for Organization and Methods’. O & M work means revie

Delegated Legislation

In order to reduce pressure on parliamentary time acts of parliament often give Government Ministers or opt per authorities the power to regulate admi

Administrative Tribunals

Administrative tribunals differ from the ordinary courts in two things, their constitution and procedure. As regards their composition they consist of

Dicey on Administrative Law

According to Dicey, Administrative Law is that portion of a nation’s legal system which determines the legal status and liabilities of all state off

Content and process theories of Motivation

Motivation theories We can distinguish between contentand processmotivation theories. Content theories focus on WHAT, while process theories focus o

Contingency Approach to Management

The ‘Contingency Approach to Management’ is relatively a new approach to manage­ment. It is an extension of the system approach. The basic idea o

New Public Management (NPM)

The term New Public Management (NPM) emerged in the beginning of the 1990s in response to the challenges of   globalization, international compe

Development Administration: Concept and Features

The essence of development administration is to bring about change through integrated, organised and properly directed governmental action. In the rec


Chris Argyris was basically a psychologist who studied organisation from the stand point of psychology. He has dwelt on length on the social and psyc

William Ouchi’s Theory Z of Motivation: Features and Limitations!

William Ouchi’s Theory Z of Motivation: Features and Limitations! William Ouchi developed Theory Z after making a comparative study of Japanese and

Scientific Management Movement

Scientific Management Movement Management is the art of getting things done. There have been two important events in history which influenced the natu

Contribution of Administration Thinkers.

Here we are giving the Significant Works and Ideas of Administrative Thinkers which will help the candidates. Public Administration Thinkers | Adminis

Salient features of Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India is considered as a distinctive constitution around the globe. It is the largest written liberal democratic constitution of t

Bureaucracy and development

Bureaucracy as an organization is expected to play a pivotal role, in process of development. The concept of Development Administration had originated

Political culture

POLITICAL CULTURE: Political culture can be defined as “The orientation of the citizens of a nation toward politics, and their perceptions of politi


In the present post, we will briefly understand the definitions relating to constitution, constitutional law, constitutionalism and metaconstitution.

Multiple Regulatory Bodies in India – Issues & Suggestions

Regulatory body is an organization set up by the Government to monitor, guide and control a particular sector such as banking, insurance, education

Pert and CPM

Project management can be understood as a systematic way of planning, scheduling, executing, monitoring, controlling the different aspects of the proj

O and M Working in India

Organisation and Methods (O & M) The Meaning of O and M-The O and M is an abbreviation for Organization and Methods’. O & M work means revie

PPP model of Indian government-Examples

Some of the successful or failure examples of PPP models of Indian government are:- CASES OF SUCCESSFUL PPP MODELS: 1.) IN TRANSPORT SECTOR: A.) SECON

Riggs model of Comparative Public Administration

Topics Covered Fred Riggs Tools Agraria – Industria Model :Fred Riggs Fused Prismatic Diffracted Model ( Fred Riggs) Prismatic Sala Model( Fred Rigg


Topics covered Decision-Making School Of Thought Attack On ‘Proverbs’ Of Administration Specialization, Unity Of Command And Span Of Contr

Comparison of Human Relations School with the Classical School

Comparison of Human Relations School of Thought with the Classical School Human Relations Theory of George Elton Mayo is basically built upon the succ

Elton Mayo

Elton Mayo  The development of the human relations theory can be traced back to the contributions of the Hugo Munster Berg and Elton Mayo and his col

Critical Appraisal of Theory of Principles (or Classical Theory)

Classical school Public Administration The thinking in the Classical School of thought which believes in organisational principles was influenced by t

Can you explain ‘Civil Services Activism’ in India with examples?

Civil services’ activism includes all or any of those proactive steps which are taken by civil servants to make the system/administration more peopl

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory was proposed by Victor. H. Vroom, who believed that people are motivated to perform activities to achieve some goal to th

Chester Barnard

Topics covered About Chester Barnard Three elements in an organization Contribution- Satisfaction Equilibrium General and Specific Inducements Positio

Difference Between Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy

The economic position of a country can be monitored, controlled and regulated by the sound economic policies. The fiscal and monetary policies of the

Monetary Policy Committee

The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (RBI Act) has been amended by the Finance Act, 2016,  to provide for a statutory and institutionalised framework

Mary Parker Follet (1866-1933).

 Ideas of Mary Parker Follet’s are a bridge between the classical school of thought and the Behavioural School of Thought. She gave a socio-psy

ELTOM MAYO- First enquiry

George Elton Mayo is considered as one of the pioneers of the human relations movement. Elton Mayo advocated a humanistic not mechanistic employer-e


Introduction  Douglas Mcgregor is a behaviorist and social psychologist of repute. He is a strong believer in the potentialities of human beings in c


MASLOW’S THEORY OF MOTIVATION Maslow ‘in his classic paper ‘A Theory of Human Motivation’ published in 1943 outlined an overall th


NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION New Public Administration is an anti-positivist, anti-technical, and anti-hierarchical reaction against traditional public a




After the decline of the comparative administration group (CAG) in the early 1970’s,there was a lull in this field due to several factors like t

Budgetary Process

The budget process in India, like in most other countries, comprises  four distinct phases. Budget formulation: the preparation of estimates of expen


The FRBM Act is a fiscal sector legislation enacted by the government of India in 2003, aiming to ensure fiscal discipline for the centre by setting t

Self Help Groups

Self Help Groups (SHG) are mentioned in the GS Paper 2 as per the latest UPSC Mains Syllabus. SHG related questions can also be expected in Prelims as

Anti Development thesis.

After the WWII, European reconstruction was undertaken under ‘Marshall Plan’ to rebuild war-devastated economies of European countries. This becam

Budgetary procedure in India

The budgetary procedure in India involves four different operations that are Preparation of the budget Enactment of the budget Execution of the budget

Controller General of Accounts

Duties and Functions of Controller General of Accounts (CGA) The information regarding accounts of the union government are released / disseminated by

Accounts and Audit

Accounts Francis Oakey defines the term as “Accounting is the science of producing promptly and presetting clearly the facts relating to financial c

Monetary Policy of India 

Monetary Policy of India   You might have heard of the term Monetary Policy in Economy class. Recently there were many changes in the way Monetar

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – Meaning,Nature and Scope

Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of the government which comprise of rule making or legi

Dicey on Administrative Law

According to Dicey, Administrative Law is that portion of a nation’s legal system which determines the legal status and liabilities of all state off

Delegated Legislation

In order to reduce pressure on parliamentary time acts of parliament often give Government Ministers or opt per authorities the power to regulate admi


With the acceptance of Welfare ideology, there was a mushroom growth of public services and public servants. The courts, particularly the High Courts

Tribunals in India

Tribunals were added in the Constitution by Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976 as Part XIV-A, which has only two articles viz. 323-A and

Growth of Administrative Law in India

The term Rule of Law of got from French phase ‘la principle de legalite’ which implies the principle of legality. It refers to an administration i


STRONG STATE VERSUS THE MARKET DEBATE: There has been a constant debate as to what shall be the instrumental influencing factor for the economic arran

Concept of Development

Concept of Development Development is quite dynamic concept. It is ever changing. The concept of development is neither new nor old. It has been in ex

Impact of Liberalization on Administration in Developing Countries

Impact of Liberalization on Administration in Developing Countries Liberalisation means relaxation of government controls in the spheres of economic a

Self Help Groups(women)

What is a self-help group (SHG)? Self-Help Groups are informal associations of people who choose to come together to find ways to improve their living

Critic of Anti-Development Thesis

There is a large body of works which are critical of post-development theory and its proponents. It has been noted that post-development theory sees a

Anti-Development Thesis

Anti-Development Thesis After the WWII, European reconstruction was undertaken under ‘Marshall Plan’ to rebuild war-devastated economies of Europe


Dichotomy The Politics-administration dichotomy is a theory that constructs the boundaries of public administration and asserts the normative relation

Current Status of Comparative Public Administration

Current Status of Comparative Public Administration The contemporary comparative public administration is concerned with the complexities of social ch

Comparative Public Administration

COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEFINITION Comparative public administration is defined as the revise of administrative systems in a comparative fas

Fredrick Taylor

Fredrick Taylor At the turn of the 20th century, the American engineer, Frederick Winslow Taylor, proposed scientific methodologies to improve the pro

Woodrow Wilson Politics-Administration Dichotomy

TheWoodrow Wilson Politics-administration dichotomy is a theory that constructs the boundaries of public administration and asserts the normative rel

Sociology lecture 2 by ILA TRIPATHI

Sociology lecture 2 by ILA TRIPATHI Link to the class: “” Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Li

Minnowbrook Conference-III

Minnowbrook Conference-III The Academic-Practitioner RelationshipThis conference took place during September, 2008. It was chaired by Rosemary O’Lea

Procedure Established by Law vs Due Process of Law

In this post we shall see two important terms often cited in Supreme Court Judgments – Procedure Established by Law and Due Process of Law – thei


What is Motivation? Motivation is the answer to the question “Why we do what we do?”. The motivation theories try to figure out what the “M” i


Introduction During 1960s the American society was in dismay and the citizens were full of grievances. In such a scenario the scholars got together to

Human relation theory/ELTON MAYO

Human relation theory/ELTON MAYO -This theory came as a reaction to the classical approach, which stressed on formal structure. -The classical school


SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION 19TH century was the period of industrial revolution and there was an expansion of business. This led to new proble


Public Choice Approach  Public choice approach is the application of economics in the study of public administration. This approach is advocated by C


Mary Parker Follet Introduction She is regarded as a bridge between classical approach and human relation – behavioral approach. She was the first o


INTRODUCTION Woodrow Wilson was an American president and is considered to be the father of public administration due to his pioneering contribution i

Send this to a friend