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Factors behind the coming of the Europeans

Factors behind the coming of the Europeans:

  • European economy was growing which rapidly reflected in the rise of towns and increase of trade and there was a steady demand for oriental goods.
  • There was increase in supply of meat, led to increased demand for pepper and spices to make the market palatable.
  • The Ottoman turks captured Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 and established a virtual monopoly over trade in pepper and also controlled trade routes in Mediterranean sea and the Red sea, this worked against the Europeans.
  • Venice and Genoa which were earlier active in trade in oriental goods were too small to stand up to the turks and Venice came to terms with the turks.
  • The Genoese aided the west European countries such as Spain and Portugal to find a direct sea route to India through Africa.
  • Of all the European countries, the Portuguese were the earliest to succeed due to the patronage of Portuguese ruler Dom Henrique (Henery the Navigator), the use of the mariner’s compass and the astrolabe for navigation by day. The sprit of daring and enterprise certainly helped them.
  • The Portuguese had the twin objectives of ousting the Arabs as well as the European rivals, the Venetians from the rich eastern trade and secondly, they wanted to counterpoise the growing power of the turks and Arabs by converting the heathens of Africa and Asia to Christianity, which had the sanction of the Pope in 1453.
  • The Ottoman turks captured Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 and established a virtual monopoly over trade in pepper and also controlled trade routes in Mediterranean sea and the Red sea, this worked against the Europeans.

ALSO READ : https://www.brainyias.com/national-food-security-act-2013/

Medieval History

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