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  • The insurgencies in the North East are a reflection of its social, cultural, ethnic and politico-economic milieu and changes ‘in the environment of the area. North-East is an extremely heterogeneous region with high level of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious diversity.
  • This is reflected in the pattern of conflicts, which are varied in their nature and causes and the stance of the insurgent groups which remain divergent and ever changing. These range from secession to autonomy, movements against foreigners and immigrants, ethnic integration and looking back to their roots as a reaction to perceived imposition of indianness. The common factor is resorting to violence in articulation and mobilization for the same.
  • Similarly, political evolution in the North East is influenced by its divergent historical experience, social and cultural diversity and distinctiveness leading to socio­political tensions and instability, which again results in agitational approach to problems and violence. Of these, the recent phenomenon of ethnic mobilization poses a threat to adversaries resulting in a conflict situation.
  • Influx of immigrants poses economic, cultural and social threats and provides a cause for conflict and violence. Trans-border migration from Bangladesh is a major factor for the problems in Assam and other areas of the North East. The point that Bangladesh immigrants are a source of communal and ethnic tension was well proved by the Assam agitation and subsequent events.
  • Their transgression into land and providing cheap labour is a cause of social and economic insecurity for local communities and a cause of tension and violence. The problem is not only increasing but getting more complex.
  • The conflicts in the North-East centre around human frustration born out of deprivations of various types primarily in the socio-economic fields with political articulation, possibly with the exception of Nagas which is deep rooted in their feeling of being separate with no political, cultural and economic links with their neighbouring communities.
  • Even this is undergoing a change, while peoples orientation is towards peace, development and economic well being, the NSCN (IM) still articulates the political stance of independence.
  • Meiteis feel deprived as compared to the hill tribes (due to reservations for the tribals) in the economic and employment fields. Similarly, Assamese feel deprived compared to rest of India, as do Bodos compared to the Assamese­-primarily in the economic fields.                            EXTREMISM IN NORTH EAST
  • Mizoram feels constrained due to its geographical location and experience of Mautam (famine) in 1959, again basically the cause is economic deprivation. Tribal insurgency in Tripura is as a result of alienation of Tribal land due to Bengali influx resulting in economic and social deprivation.

China Encouraging Violence in North-Eastern States

  • There are reports that various insurgent/militants groups operating in the North Eastern States procure arms and sophisticated weapons from Sino-Myanmar border towns and South-East Asia. No direct Chinese involvement has been reported. The activities of such underground militant/insurgent groups are kept under close vigil.
  • In order to counter unlawful activities of these groups, the Central Government is, inter-alia, supplementing efforts of the State Governments through various measures such as deployment of additional Central security forces for carrying out intensive counter insurgency operations and providing security for vulnerable installations and projects, effective guarding of international borders by the border security forces, based on threat assessment; sharing of intelligence, financial assistance for strengthening of the local police forces and intelligence agencies under the Police Modernization scheme, through the scheme of Security Related Expenditure for strengthening various aspects of security; raising of additional Forces in the form of India Reserve Battalions, etc.

Talks With Insurgents Groups

  • The United Liberation Front of Assam (Independent) (ULFA/I) and National Democratic Front of Bodoland/Songbijit (NDFB/S) have been indulging in terrorist violence from time to time mercilessly killing innocent people, including women and children. These outfits are also indulging themselves in extortion activities and abduction/kidnapping of people for ransom.
  • Efforts of the State Government are being supplemented for containing violent activities of these terrorist organisations. It is viewed that there is hardly any reasons for holding talks with the groups which are indulging in mindless violence and other criminal activities thereby making lives of general public miserable.          EXTREMISM IN NORTH EAST
  • However, The Government has always shown willingness to enter into dialogue with any group, which is willing to abjure the path of violence and seeking resolution of their grievances within the framework of the Constitution of India. Talks with ULFA (pro-talk group), NDFB (Progressive) and NDFB (Ranjan Daimary) groups are continuing.


Internal security

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