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Explain Irrigation Techniques.

National Agricultural Market and Irrigation Techniques

e-NAM (National Agricultural Market) is a pan-India electronic trading portal launched by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare to facilitate farmers, traders, exporters, and processors with a common platform for trading commodities and irrigation techniques.

As on 1 January 2017, it links 250 APMCs (Agriculture Produce Marketing Committees) from across 10 states. Traders and exporters need to get themselves registered with the portal to access its services. Sixty-nine commodities, including staple food grains, vegetables, and fruits, are currently listed in its list of commodities available for trade and irrigation techniques are also there.

The portal is managed by the Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) appointed by the ministry in association with a group of strategic partners selected for the purpose. The SFAC is the lead promoter of NAM. It is a registered society of the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers’ Welfare under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer Welfare. Irrigation techniques is also beneficial  for farmers.


Irrigation Technique is the method in which a controlled amount of water is supplied to plants at regular intervals for agriculture. It is used to assist the growth of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and re-vegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Irrigation techniques depend on the method of water distribution in a field. Various irrigation techniques are as follows:

Surface Irrigation techniques

Surface irrigation techniques refers to the flow of water under the influence of gravity or slope of land. Surface irrigation techniques is the most commonly used method of irrigation techniques. However, it suffers from certain problems:

  • It leads to wastage of a lot of water.
  • Overuse of water may lead to water logging.
  • Extensive surface irrigation techniques may lead to unwanted rise in the water table, which may further bring salt deposits in underground water to the roots of the crops, causing damage to crops.

Surface irrigation techniques is of the following sub-types:

Furrow irrigation technique

Under this type of irrigation technique, a long narrow trench is made in the field. Further, the trench is given outlets into the fields from which water is continuously supplied to the field.

Border strip irrigation technique

Under border strip irrigation technique, the field is bordered with the help of mud embankments. These embankments enable the water to remain concentrated in a particular area or part of the field.

Basin irrigation technique

Basin irrigation involves supply of water to the entire basin under irrigation technique. In other words, the water is allowed to cover the whole field. This type of irrigation techniques is used for paddy cultivation.

Localized Irrigation Technique

Localized irrigation technique is a method of irrigation technique in which water is distributed through a piped network in a predetermined pattern and applied to plants only in required amounts. Localized irrigation technique can further be divided into the following:

Drip irrigation technique

Drip irrigation technique  is also called trickle irrigation technique. Under drip irrigation, water is supplied to the roots of the plant, drop by drop, through a network of small-sized pipes. Drip irrigation technique reduces the consumption water. Drips or small-sized pipes can also be used to deliver fertilizers to plants.

Sprinkler irrigation technique

This type of irrigation techniques involves rotation of a sprinkler in the centre of field and distribution of water to the field with the help of sprinklers under irrigation technique. Unlike surface irrigation technique where a large amount of water is concentrate; in a particular part of a field, a sprinkler facilitates distribution of water over a large part of a field.

Sub-irrigation technique

Sub-irrigation technique is also called seepage irrigation technique. It is used in areas with high water table. It is a method of raising the water table in order to let the soil gather moisture from underground water. This type of irrigation technique is used in low lands or areas adjoining river valleys.

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