EXECUTIVE CONTROL AND ACCOUNTABILITY:
In a parliamentary and democratic system of governance there is the political executive (govt.) and the permanent executive(bureaucracy) . Here will be discussing the political executive’s control over the permanent executive where the permanent executive works under the political executive through ministries and departments and is responsible to the political executive who in turn is responsible collectively to the House of Parliament especially the House of the people or the Lok Sabha and that’s how they are answerable to the people.
Lets discuss those controls in detail: i) Recruitment and promotion system – The UPSC and state PSC’s appoint and remove personnel however the general rules of appointment,eligibility,age,etc to these posts and the recruitment procedure is laid down by the govt. of the day.
ii) Executive law making:Through the process of delegated legislation as discussed above and ordinances ( rule made by the govt or president which is temporary in nature unless passed in due time by the Houses of parliament) in times of emergencies and is not questionable in a court of law however if the objective of the ordinance is not fulfilled then people can approach court for accountability.
iii) Budget: Explained before above.
iv) Staff agencies:Union Cabinet committees like Economic committee,Foreign affairs committee,etc whose task is to advise,direct and coordinate the ministries linked to the subject matter of these committees. Cabinet Secretariat which is headed by a civil servant called the Cabinet Secretary and a joint secy,two deputy secy,two under secy,two asst secy and four staff officers from the defence services.It deals with coordinating between various ministries and departments and the govt. and also maintains all details of meetings,deals with matters of organisation and personnel and presides over various committees on the behalf of the govt.
e) Civil service code for conduct and discipline:
Bureaucrats are supposed to be neutral and apolitical to carry out their duties and they have guidelines and rules laid down for correct and ethical behaviour which they follow lest they attract disciplinary action and suspension/dismission.
f) Appeal to Public Opinion: The bureaucracy is generally change resistant and likes to follow their own rules where the public is concerned and this is the reason for public dissatisfaction with the bureaucracy.Therefore,to counter this the bureaucracy is often seen being directed to coordinate with pressure groups and other voluntary organisations to carry out/implement public policy and this is how they connect with the people to maintain their status.