About Us  :  Online Enquiry

The English in Modern History

By : brainykey   March 3, 2018

The English in Modern History

  • An English association or company to trade with the East was formed in 1599 under the auspices of a group of merchants known as the Merchant Adventurers.
  • The company was granted a Royal Charter and the exclusive privilege to trade in the East by Queen Elizabeth on 31 December 1600.
  • The company was named as the East India Company.
  • From the beginning, it was linked with the monarchy: Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603) was one of the shareholders of the company.
  • The first voyage of the English East India Company was made in 1601 when its ships sailed to the Spice Islands of Indonesia.
  • In 1608, a factory was established at Surat, on the West coast of India and sent Captain Hawkins to Jahangir’s Court to obtain Royal favors.
  • Initially, Hawkins was received in a friendly manner.
  • He was given a mansab and a jagir.
  • Later, he was expelled from Agra as a result of Portuguese intrigue.
  • This convinced the English (need) to overcome Portuguese influence at the Mughal Court if they were to obtain any concessions from the Imperial Government.
  • English defeated a Portuguese naval squadron at Swally near Surat in 1612 and then again in 1614.
  • These victories led the Mughals to hope that in view of their naval weakness, they could use the English to counter the Portuguese on the sea.
  • In 1615, English ambassador Sir Thomas Roe reached the Mughal Court (shown in the image given above) and exerted pressure on the Mughal authorities by taking advantage of India’s naval weakness.
  • English merchants also harassed the Indian traders while shipping through the Red Sea and to Mecca.
  • Thus, combining entreaties with threats, Roe succeeded in getting an imperial Farman to trade and establish factories in all parts of the Mughal Empire.
  • Roe’s success further angered the Portuguese and a fierce naval battle between the two countries began in 1620 that ended with English victory.
  • Hostilities between the English and Portuguese came to an end in 1630.
  • In 1662, the Portuguese gave the Island of Bombay to King Charles II of England as dowry for marrying with a Portuguese Princess.
  • Eventually, the Portuguese lost all their possessions in India except Goa, Diu, and Daman.
  • The English Company fell out with the Dutch Company over division of the spice trade of the Indonesian Islands.
  • Finally, the Dutch nearly expelled the English from the trade of the Spice Islands and the later were compelled to concentrate on India where the situation was more favorable to them.
  • The intermittent war in India between the English and the Dutch had begun in 1654 and ended in 1667; when the English gave up all claims to Indonesia while the Dutch agreed to leave alone the English settlements in India.
  • The English, however, continued their efforts to drive out the Dutch from the Indian trade and by 1795, they had expelled the Dutch from their last possession in India.
  • The English East India Company had very humble beginnings in India.
  • Surat was the center of its trade till 1687.
  • Throughout the trading period, the English refrained petitioners before the Mughal authorities.
  • By 1623, they had established factories at Surat, Broach, Ahmedabad, Agra, and Masulipatam.

The English in Modern History – The English in Modern History  – The English in Modern History

Tags :

Send this to a friend