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EMERGENCE OF PARALLEL NEW FORCES DURING THE 1920s

 EMERGENCE OF PARALLEL NEW FORCES DURING THE 1920s

Activism of Indian youth

  • Across India, student conferences were held and effort was put in to show the strength of the youth in the freedom movement.
  • In 1928, Nehru presided over All Bengal Students’ Conference marking the important role to be played in the freedom movement at that time as well as the time ahead

Peasants agitations

United Provinces reflected the struggle for laws to secure peasantry like:

  1. Tenancy laws including lower rents
  2. Protection against eviction
  3. Relief from indebtedness

These movements spread wide across the nation resulting in agitations in Rampa region of Andhra, Rajasthan, Ryotwari regions of Bombay province and Madras province.

In Gujarat, Bardoli Satyagraha was led by Patel in 1928.

Growth of Trade unions

  • The trade union movement was led by All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) founded in 1920. Lala Lajpat Rai was its first president and Dewan Chaman Lai its general secretary. Tilak was also one of the moving spirits.
  • The major strikes during the 1920s included those in Kharagpur Railway Workshops, Tata Iron and Steel Works (Jamshedpur), Bombay Textile Mills (this involved 1,50,000 workers and went on for 5 months), and Buckingham Carnatic Mills.                                      EMERGENCE OF PARALLEL NEW FORCES DURING THE 1920s
  • In 1928, there were a number of strikes involving 5 lakh workers. In 1923, the first May Day was celebrated in India in Madras.

Caste Movements

As in earlier periods, the varied contradictions of the Indian society found expression in caste associations and movements.

These movements could be divisive, conservative and at times potentially radical, and included:

  • Justice Party (Madras)
  • Self-respect movement (1925) under “Periyar”- E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker (Madras)
  • Satyashodhak activists in Satara (Maharashtra)
  • Bhaskar Rao Jadhav (Maharashtra)
  • Mahars Under Ambedkar (Maharashtra)
  • Radical Ezhavas under K. Aiyappan and C. Kesavan in Kerala
  • Yadavs in Bihar for improvement in social status
  • Unionist Party under Fazl-i-Hussain (Punjab).                                            EMERGENCE OF PARALLEL NEW FORCES DURING THE 1920s

Revolutionary Terrorism with a Turn towards Socialism:

This line was adopted by those dissatisfied with the nationalist strategy of the political struggle with its emphasis on non-violence. In this also, two strands developed:

  1. Hindustan Republican Association (H.R.A.)- in Punjab- UP-Bihar
  2. Yugantar, Anushilan groups and later Chittagong Revolt Group under Surya Sen- in Bengal

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Modern History

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