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Project Tiger

  • ‘Project Tiger’ was launched for the conservation of tigers by the central government in 1973. In 1900, the population of tigers was 40,000 and by 1972, it declined to 1800.
  • Tiger holds utmost importance in the ecosystem, because it is at the top of terrestrial food chain.
  • Decline in the tiger population would lead to increase in the population of species which are prey to tigers, leading to an imbalance in the ecosystem.
  • ‘Project Tiger’ banned poaching of tigers and required creation of tiger reserves. Tiger reserves are created with the objective of conserving the tiger population in their natural habitat.
  • Tiger reserves consist of a core area which is free from any human interference and a buffer area, where minimal human interference is allowed.
  • Tiger reserves are notified by the government on recommendation of National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).              EFFORTS FOR CONSERVATION OF TIGER POPULATION
  • Once notified, no alteration in the boundary of tiger reserves can be made except on the recommendation of NTCA and the approval of National Board for Wildlife (NBWL).


  • The NTCA is a statutory body created under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 by an amendment passed in the year 2006.
  • The NTCA has the objective to recommend measures for the conservation of tiger.
  • By the Amendment Act of 2006, along with NTCA, Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (tiger and other endangered species crime control bureau) was created.

Tiger Census

  • Since the year 2006, tiger census has been conducted in India every four years.
  • In 2010, tiger population was 1706 and in the year 2014, it was 2226.
  • The tiger census of 2014 could not be conducted in Jharkhand and some parts of North-Eastern India.

Methodology Used in Tiger Census

  • Earlier, tiger census was done with the help of pugmark method.
  • In this method, the imprints of pugmark of a tiger were recorded and were used as an identification for the population of tigers. This is not a very scientific method.
  • Recent methods used in tiger census are camera trappings and DNA fingerprinting.
  • In camera trappings, the photograph of a tiger is taken and the tigers are differentiated on the basis of the number of stripes on their body.
  • The most advanced technique is DNA fingerprinting. In this technique, tigers are identified on the basis of their scats (excreta).                  EFFORTS FOR CONSERVATION OF TIGER POPULATION

Environment & Biodiversity

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