- An earthquake is a phenomenon that occurs without warning and involves sudden shaking of the ground caused by two chunks of earth’s crust sliding past one another.
- It results from the release of accumulated stress of the moving lithospheric or crustal plates.
- Although earthquakes are short-lived, usually not lasting more than a minute, they can leave behind incredible damage.
Causes of Earthquake:
- Natural geomorphological phenomenon isn’t the only factor responsible for earthquakes. Activities like mining, nuclear explosions and groundwater extraction has seen an increase in the number of human-induced earthquakes.
- Volcanic activity also can cause an earthquake, but the earthquakes of volcanic origin are generally less severe and more limited in extent than those caused by fracturing of the earth’s crust.
- Another reason attributed by scientists for increasing earthquakes is the cooling of earth. Scientists claim cooling causes the contraction of the earth’s crust, which results into increased volcanic disturbance causing earthquakes. EARTHQUAKE MANAGEMENT
- Increasing population and unscientific land use in construction make India a high-risk land for earthquakes.
Earthquake Management in India:
- The NDMA, as the apex body for disaster management, is headed by the Prime Minister and has the responsibility for laying down policies, plans and guidelines for DM (and coordinating their enforcement and implementation for ensuring timely and effective response to disasters) .
- National Information Centre of Earthquake Engineering (NICEE) undertakes various capacity-building activities by publishing and disseminating information, and by increasing awareness among students and
professionals through conferences and workshops.
- The National Center for Seismology: An office of the Ministry of Earth Sciences. It submits earthquake surveillance and hazard reports to governmental agencies. It includes three divisions: Earthquake Monitoring & Services, Earthquake Hazard & Risk Assessment, Geophysical Observation System.
- At the State level, the SDMA, headed by the Chief Minister, will lay down policies and plans for DM in the State. It will, inter alia approve the State Plan in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the NDMA.
- Government agencies, the region’s major industries, and earthquake professionals have to work together to prepare the region to respond to and recover from major earthquakes. This can be done through region-wide, multi-organizational plans, training, exercises and coordination assessments, as well as continuing improvements in our collective understanding of seismic risks.
- The government launched two Mobile apps: ‘India Quake’– Developed by the National center for seismology, the mobile app disseminates real-time earthquake information. ‘Sagar Vani’-Intended to serve coastal communities, the mobile app disseminates ocean related information and alerts to the user community in a timely manner for their safety. EARTHQUAKE MANAGEMENT