- According to international organization, UNESCO, “Governance refers to the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority in the management of a country’s affairs, including citizens’ articulation of their interests and exercise of their legal rights and obligations.”
- “E-Governance may be understood as the performance of this governance via the electronic medium in order to facilitate an efficient, speedy and transparent process of disseminating information to the public, and other agencies, and for performing government administration activities”.
- These technologies can serve a variety of different ends: better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management.
- The resulting benefits can be less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth, and or cost reductions
Different connotations of e-Governance:
The term E-Governance has different connotations:
- E-Administration: The use of ICTs to modernize the state; the creation of data repositories for MIS, computerization of records.
- E-Services: The emphasis here is to bring the state closer to the citizens. Examples include provision of online services. E-administration and e-services together constitute what is generally termed e-government.
- E-Governance: The use of IT to improve the ability of government to address the needs of society. It includes the publishing of policy and programme related information to transact with citizens. It extends beyond provision of on-line services and covers the use of IT for strategic planning and reaching development goals of the government.
- E-Democracy: The use of IT to facilitate the ability of all sections of society to participate in the governance of the state. The remit is much broader here with a stated emphasis on transparency, accountability and participation. Examples could include online disclosure policies, online grievance redress forums and e-referendums. Conceptually, more potent.
Q. What are the objectives of e-Governance and e-Democracy?
- The strategic objective of e-governance is to support and simplify governance for all parties – government, citizens and businesses.
- The use of ICTs can connect all three parties and support processes and activities.
- In other words, in e-governance uses electronic means to support and stimulate good governance.
- Therefore the objectives of e-governance are similar to the objectives of good governance.
- Good governance can be seen as an exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to better manage affairs of a country at all levels, national and local.
- The two main objectives of e-democracy are:
- To provide citizens access to information and knowledge about the political process, about services and about choices available
- To make possible the transition from passive information access to active citizen participation by:
- Informing the citizen
- Representing the citizen
- Encouraging the citizen to vote
- Consulting the citizen
- Involving the citizen
Q. What are the pre-requisites for e-Governance?
- Improve E-Readiness in aspect of E-Governance which includes human resources, budgeting resources, inter/intra departmental communication flows, society’s readiness.
- Investment in Telecommunication infrastructure
- Competency building: Training personnel for human resource development must be implemented at all levels.
- eSecurity, eEthics and ePrivacy
- Citizen Interfaces: Establishing a delivery channel to ensure accessibility & affordability of E-Governance by the citizens.
The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)
- The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP), takes a holistic view of e-Governance initiatives across the country, integrating them into a collective vision, a shared cause.
- Around this idea, a massive countrywide infrastructure reaching down to the remotest of villages is evolving, and large-scale digitization of records is taking place to enable easy, reliable access to the internet.
- Further, with a vision to transform e-Governance for transforming Governance and keeping in view the need to utilize emerging technologies such as Cloud and Mobile Platform and focus on the integration of services, the Government has proposed to implement “e-Kranti: National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) 2.0” under the Digital India programme.
Vision of National e-Governance Plan
- Make all Public Services accessible to the common man in his locality, through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency and reliability of such services at affordable costs to realize the basic needs of the common man.
e-Kranti – Electronic delivery of services
- e-Kranti is an essential pillar of the Digital India initiative.
- Considering the critical need for e-Governance, mobile Governance and Good Governance in the country, the approach and key components of e-Kranti have been approved by the Union Cabinet on 25.03.2015 with the vision of “Transforming e-Governance for Transforming Governance”.
- The e-Kranti framework addresses the electronic delivery of services through a portfolio of mission mode projects that cut across several Government Departments.
Q. What are the key principles of e-Kranti?
Key principles of e-Kranti
- Transformation and not Translation– All project proposals in e – Kranti must involve a substantial transformation in the quality, quantity and manner of delivery of services and significant enhancement in productivity and competitiveness.
- Integrated Services and not Individual Services– A common middleware and integration of the back-end processes and processing systems are required to facilitate integrated service delivery to citizens.
- Government Process Reengineering (GPR) – To mandate GPR as the essential first step in all new MMPs without which a project may not be sanctioned. The degree of GPR should be assessed and enhanced for the existing MMPs.
- ICT Infrastructure on Demand– Government departments should be provided with ICT infrastructures, such as connectivity, cloud and mobile platform on demand. In this regard, National Information Infrastructure (NII), which is at an advanced stage of project formulation, would be fast-tracked by DeitY.
- Cloud by Default – The flexibility, agility and cost-effectiveness offered by cloud technologies would be fully leveraged while designing and hosting applications. Government Cloud shall be the default cloud for Government Departments.
- Mobile First– All applications are designed/ redesigned to enable delivery of services through mobile.
- Fast Tracking Approvals – To establish a fast – track approval mechanism for MMPs, once the Detailed Project Report (DPR) of a project is approved by the Competent Authority, empowered committees may be constituted with delegated powers to take all subsequent decisions
- Mandating Standards and Protocols – Use of e-Governance standards and protocols as notified by DeitY be mandated in all e-governance projects
- Language Localization– It is imperative that all information and services in e-Governance projects are available in Indian languages as well.
- National GIS (Geo-Spatial Information System)– NGIS to be leveraged as a platform and as a service in e-Governance projects.
- Security and Electronic Data Preservation – All online applications and e-services to adhere to prescribed security measures including cyber security. The National Cyber Security Policy 2013 notified by DeitY must be followed.
Q. What are the thrust areas of e-Kranti outlined in Digital India?
- Technology for Education – e-Education – All schools will be connected to broadband. Free WiFi will be provided in all secondary and higher secondary schools (coverage would be around 250,000 schools). A programme on digital literacy would be taken up at the national level. Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) shall be developed and leveraged for e-Education.
- Technology for Health – e-Healthcare– e-Healthcare would cover online medical consultation, online medical records, online medicine supply, pan-India exchange for patient information, etc.
- Technology for Farmers– This would facilitate farmers to get real-time price information, online ordering of inputs and online cash, loan, and relief payment with mobile banking.
- Technology for Security– Mobile based emergency services and disaster-related services would be provided to citizens on a real-time basis so as to take precautionary measures well in time and minimize loss of lives and properties.
- Technology for Financial Inclusion– Financial inclusion shall be strengthened using mobile banking, Micro-ATM program and CSCs/ Post Offices.
- Technology for Justice– Interoperable Criminal Justice System shall be strengthened by leveraging several related applications, i.e. e-Courts, e-Police, e-Jails and e-Prosecution.
- Technology for Planning– National GIS Mission Mode Project would be implemented to facilitate GIS based decision making for project planning, conceptualization, design and development.
- Technology for Cyber Security– National Cyber Security Co-ordination Centre would be set up to ensure safe and secure cyber-space within the country.
There are 44 Mission Mode Projects under e-Kranti, which are at various stages of implementation.
Various Programs under e-Governance:
GI Cloud Initiative – Meghraj
- Cloud Computing Services provide the new model of offering services (Platform as a Service (PaaS), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Software as a Services (SaaS) and Storage as a Service (STaaS)) to the users at fast pace which is also cost effective.
- In order to utilise and harness the benefits of Cloud Computing, Government of India has embarked upon an ambitious initiative – “GI Cloud” which has been named as ‘MeghRaj’.
- This initiative is to implement various components including governance mechanism to ensure proliferation of Cloud in the government.
- The focus of this initiative is to accelerate delivery of e-services in the country while optimizing ICT spending of the Government.
- MeghRaj will ensure optimum utilization of the infrastructure and speed up the development and deployment of eGov applications.
- The architectural vision of GI Cloud encompasses a set of discrete cloud computing environments spread across multiple locations, built on existing or new (augmented) infrastructure, following a set of common protocols, guidelines and standards issued by the Government of India.
Services offered as part of National Cloud:
The National Informatics Centre (NIC) is providing National Cloud services under the initiative MeghRaj. The services offered are as follows.
- Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
IaaS provides you basic virtual compute infrastructure resources like CPU, Memory, Disk Storage attached to blank VMs with allowing you to install OS, using ISOs, from scratch and customization. However you have to use your own licenses for OS and Application software (if any).
- Platform as a Services (PaaS)
PaaS provides pre-installed web and database servers so that you can publish and run web application without worrying about server setup. The servers are pre configured ready with basic security hardening. Use PaaS service to quickly deploy servers and publish your web applications. The OS & Application Software licenses are provided by us as part of offering.
- Software as a Services (SaaS)
This provides on demand software service. SaaS is a software delivery model where users are not responsible for supporting the application or any of the components. The server infrastructure, OS and software is being managed by cloud services. If you are having web application and want to distribute it to users, use our Cloud Service to deliver through Software as a Service.
- Storage as a Service (STaaS)
STaaS provides need based storage solution . It provides excellent alternative to the traditional on-site and dedicated storage systems and reduces the complexities of deploying and managing multiple storage tiers. You can use it to mitigate risks in disaster recovery, provide long-term retention for records and enhance both continuity and availability.
- The Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA), Government of India, has initiated the MCA21 project, which enables easy and secure access to MCA services in an assisted manner for corporate entities, professionals, and general public.
- The MCA21project is designed to fully automate all processes related to enforcement and compliance of the legal requirements under the Companies Act, 1956.
- The project further seeks to achieve inter-operability with the National e-Governance Services Delivery Gateway (NSDG), which will help extend MCA services to businesses via multiple front-end delivery channels, and which will also help provide other value-added services over and above the base services offered by MCA21.
Gyandoot (Madhya Pradesh)
- Services include:
- A low cost, self-sustainable, and community-owned rural Intranet system (Soochnalaya) that caters the specific needs of village communities of Dhar district
- Soochanalayas (organised as Kiosks) manage by rural youth selected and trained from amongst the unemployed educated youth of the village
- User charges are levied for a wide range of services that include agricultural information, market information, health, education, women’s issues, and applications for services delivered by the district administration related to land ownership, affirmative action, and poverty alleviation
- Mahila E-Haat is an initiative for meeting aspirations and needs of women entrepreneurs.
- It is an online marketing platform for women, where participants can display their products.
- It is an initiative for women across the country as a part of ‘Digital India’ and ‘Stand Up India’
- The platform has been set up by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India under Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK).
Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM)
- Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) is an initiative to enable fast, secure, reliable cashless payments through your mobile phone.
- BHIM is based on Unified Payment Interface (UPI) to facilitate e-payments directly through bank.
- It is interoperable with other Unified Payment Interface (UPI) applications, and bank accounts.
- Unified Payment Interface(UPI) is an instant payment system built over the IMPS infrastructure and allows you to instantly transfer money between any two parties bank accounts.
- BHIM is developed by the National Payment Corporation of India (NPCI).
chiseled and crafted by G.Rajput sir